Table of contents:
- History of Creation
- Modifications of Tu-154
- Cabin layout options
- Interesting facts and passenger reviews
Developed by the Tupolev Design Bureau in the 60s of the last century, the Tu-154 took a special place in the further development of Soviet aviation. This three-engine jet aircraft is designed for medium-range flights. It was created to replace the outdated Tu-104.
In domestic production, it was the Tu-154 that became the most massive. It was assembled until 2013. The airliner has become a real legend not only within the Soviet Union, but throughout the world.
History of Creation
The chief designer of the Tupolev bureau, S. Yeger, took up the development of a new aircraft. The foundation was laid in 1963. Salon Tu-154 was supposed to replace passengers with obsolete models of salons An-10, Tu-104 and Il-18. The task before the designer was not an easy one: the aircraft should not be inferior in terms of flight and technical characteristics to its competitor Boeing-727.
But it all started with the fact that the management of Aeroflot of those years put forward new requirements for medium-haul flying machines. In the Tu-154 it was proposed to combine the takeoff and landingcharacteristics of the An-10, the ability to develop speed, like the Tu-104 and the ability to fly over distances, like the Il-18. That is, the Tu-154 was supposed to replace all three of the aforementioned aircraft on the airways.
The first development was released in 1966, and three years later it was exhibited at the Le Bourget aviation exhibition. According to the feedback from passengers who experienced the flight, both on the Tu-104 and on the Tu-154, the cabin of the second aircraft was more comfortable. In addition, a newfangled automatic pressure control system inside the fuselage was installed on board.
Initially, the project had two types: cargo, which could carry up to 25 tons of cargo over a distance of 2,700 kilometers, and passenger. After the exhibition in La Bourget, the aircraft was improved more than once and passed many air and ground tests. As a result, Aeroflot received its first Tu-154 with a superior cabin in 1970.
However, at first it was used to transport correspondence, and it was during this period that flaws in the reliability of some structural parts were discovered. They were subsequently corrected. The first passengers entered the Tu-154 cabin only in 1972.
The Tu-154 cabin was equipped with a convenient air conditioning system, three toilet rooms were installed, and rather spacious luggage racks for hand luggage were placed above the seats. According to passenger reviews, this type of aircraft was not inferior in comfort to foreign analogues of the 80s of the pastcentury.
The maximum number of passengers that the Tu-154 cabin can accommodate is 180 people. Armchairs are located on the left and right side of the board. Due to the fact that the Tu-154 went into mass production, it had many modifications. They differ in capacity and flight range.
Given that the Tu-154 was taken out of production in 2013, it was replaced by the Tu-204, which is currently the main machine in Red Wings.
Modifications of Tu-154
What other modifications does the Tu-154 cabin have? The photos clearly show the difference between the improved version of the Tu-154A and the Tu-154B, although the main changes still occurred in the technical equipment of the sides. For example, the latter received an additional fuel tank and emergency exits in the tail. And the above capacity of 180 people in the condition of a single-class layout affected the modification of the Tu-154B-2.
The Tu-154M became the most popular modification. This is an improved version of the Tu-154B-2. It has been fitted with jet engines and improved avionics, resulting in improved fuel economy and extended range.
Cabin layout options
In recent years, both single-class and two-class variants have been operated:
- 166 economy seats only.
- 134 seats, of which the first 12 are business class, the next 18 are comfort class and 104 are economy class.
- Most Popularthe layout was a salon for 131 seats, where the first four rows were occupied by a business class according to the 2 + 2 scheme, and the rest - by the economy class according to the 3 + 3 scheme.
From the photo of the cabin of the Tu-154 aircraft and the feedback from passengers, you can understand that this aircraft also has its worst and best places. Let's analyze them using the example of a two-class layout.
Certainly, the best seats are business class seats. They are softer and have a large stride. Cradles are not installed here, that is, the crying of the baby does not interfere with the flight. Seats located in the fourth row are considered less comfortable in "business", since next to them most aircraft models have toilet rooms and a partition that separates "business" from "economy". But on some sides there is no toilet in this part.
In economy class, the attachment system for bassinet is located just behind the "business" on the fifth row, so in this area, in addition to the toilet, a comfortable flight can be disturbed by children, noise from the queue to the toilet and unpleasant odors. However, the fifth row itself has a number of advantages: there are no seats in front of it, which means that no one can recline the back of the seat on the passenger's knees.
The most comfortable places, according to reviews, were the chairs in rows 11 and 19. They are located near the escape hatches and there is much more legroom here. The most uncomfortable places are located in the 28th row, since there are toilet rooms next to them, plus the backs of the seats do not recline here, since there is a toilet wall behind them. Besideshowever, since the engines of the liner are located in the tail section, there is much more noise from them here.
According to the technical specifications, the Tu-154 has a length of 47.9 m and a height of 11.4 m. The wingspan is 37.55 m and the vessel is considered a monoplane. The width of the fuselage is 3.8 m.
The maximum flight range has been improved to 3,600 kilometers, and the altitude ceiling that the Tu-154 can climb during a flight is 2,200 meters. The maximum speed that the liner can develop is 900 km / h. The number of flight crew members varies depending on the aircraft model, for example, on the Tu-154M - 3 people, on the Tu-154B - 5 people.
Interesting facts and passenger reviews
For each aircraft model, you can find statistics, as fate disposed of it. The Tu-154 had 73 sides completely destroyed after disasters, about 90 aircraft were cut into scrap metal, and 190 iron birds are still waiting for this fate, a restaurant was opened in one copy, and 24 aircraft turned into museum exhibits. However, about 270 aircraft still ply the airspace and more than a hundred of them are in excellent condition.
In just 20 years of production, 1025 boards of various modifications were created. And an interesting fact is that the Tu-154 was developed from scratch, and not on the basis of existing military models, as was the case with its predecessors.
Tu-154 also has its own recordflight range. It was installed on the Moscow-Yakutsk flight and was equal to 4800 kilometers.
According to passenger reviews, the aircraft was more than comfortable in the Soviet years, but today almost all cabins of operated aircraft look depressing. The disadvantage of flying is a strong vibration throughout the cabin, coming from the tail engines.
At aviation forums, some passengers are in favor of the complete decommissioning of the Tu-154, as they believe that its technical data is very outdated. Many even write that they are afraid to fly on such "junk". However, it should be borne in mind that the life of any aircraft depends on its timely maintenance, and the better it happens, the longer the machine can serve for the benefit of people.