Table of contents:
- Cathedral status
- Reason for construction
- Initial draft
- The difficult fate of the cathedral
- Completion of construction
- Cathedral characteristics
2023 Author: Harold Hamphrey | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-22 04:47
The famous Ulm Cathedral is best known for being the tallest in the world. However, its exclusivity does not end there. The history of this structure includes several centuries of construction.
Medieval Ulm Cathedral was founded in 1377. It was conceived as a Catholic church, but when the Reformation began in Europe, the building passed to the Lutherans. The main construction ended in 1382, when the building was consecrated. Since that time, services have been continuously held in it.
The church is called a cathedral, but in fact it is not. A similar status is given to a building if it contains a bishop's residence. But in the case of Ulm, the local high priest lives in Stuttgart. This contradiction arose in the Middle Ages. Nevertheless, Ulm Cathedral is still called that due to its colossal size, which boggles the imagination.
Reason for construction
Interestingly, Ulm Cathedral was built because there was no working church inside the city walls. The only temple was outside the defensive structures.
This meant that during the siege, residents could not get into the church. Such cases were not rare, because the medievalGermany often became the theater of war. For example, in 1376, Ulm was besieged by the Czech king Charles IV, who at the same time was also the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
To avoid such situations, when surrounded citizens could not pray in the right place, Ulm Cathedral was erected in Germany. In addition, the inhabitants of the city often clashed with the nearby monastery of Rheinehau. It was he who owned the church located in the suburb.
Despite the fact that only ten thousand people lived in Ulm in the 14th century, a successful campaign was organized to raise funds for the construction of a new cathedral. As mentioned above, the bookmark took place in 1377.
Since the construction was grandiose, it was decided to carry it out in two stages. The first architect of the cathedral was Heinrich Parler. He became the author of the project, according to which it was planned to build a church with two identical naves, as well as several towers. However, Parler managed to build only the lower part of the structure. This was the future Ulm Cathedral. The history of its construction is long and has numerous delays. So, for example, in the first 150 years since the laying of the cathedral, 6 architects have changed. Someone refused to build because of the complexity of the project. Others simply died of old age without waiting for the work to be completed.
The difficult fate of the cathedral
Due to the change of architects, the originalbuilding plan. It has a third nave. Also in the 16th century, it was decided to build a high tower, which was to become a bell tower. It is this part of the cathedral that is the highest, reaching 161 meters.
The construction of the temple was prevented by religious wars that began in Germany in the New Age. Many inhabitants of the country were dissatisfied with the Catholic Church and its orders. The theologian Martin Luther, by whose name one of the directions in Protestantism is called today, became the spokesman for these sentiments. The conflict turned into bloody wars, the most famous of which is the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648).
Due to lack of money and the tense situation in the country, Ulm Cathedral remained unfinished for more than three hundred years. The height of its tower in the 16th century reached 100 meters.
Completion of construction
The second, final stage of construction began in 1844. Measures were taken to strengthen the supporting structures. The side aisles could not bear the weight of the whole building, because from the very beginning they were not designed for such a burden. Nevertheless, the preparatory work was carried out successfully, and in 1880 the construction of the western tower began.
It lasted another ten years. In 1890, a cross was erected on the highest spire, which is still there today. This symbolic ceremony marked the end of many years of construction. This is how Ulm Cathedral was built. The architecture of the building belongs to the Gothic style. He went to the church since the Middle Ages, when suchaesthetics was common in Western Europe. In the 19th century, it was already a rudiment, but it was this exclusivity that helped the cathedral acquire its own globally recognizable image.
In 1890, Germany was already united around the Prussian kingdom. The opening of the huge church became a national holiday. Ulm Cathedral, a description of which is in every guidebook in Germany, is now a desirable place for tourists.
Before benches and other interior elements were installed in it, the building could accommodate about twenty thousand people. The cathedral is 123 meters long and 49 meters wide. The structure consists of three naves: one central and two side. The main part of the temple is 41 meters high. The two side naves are half as low.
The artists responsible for decorating the cathedral left behind numerous biblical paintings. The main composition is a scene depicting the creation of the world. There are also stories from the Gospel, for example, the Passion of Christ.
Columns, which are the basis of the entire building, are decorated with bas-reliefs of saints and apostles. There are various sculptures inside the naves. The general attention of visitors is attracted by the statue of Christ, which was created in the 15th century.
Thus, the efforts of many generations have united in Ulm Cathedral. There are testimonies and monuments of various eras - from the distant Middle Ages to the present.