Table of contents:
- Heart of the capital
- Red Square
- Spasskaya Tower
- St. Basil's Cathedral
- Alexander Garden
- Basmanny District
- Instead of afterword
Moscow is a very large city that attracts many tourists every year. The capital has many attractions. It would take a whole volume to describe them. In our article, we want to mention the most interesting places in the center of Moscow that you should definitely visit.
The capital boasts a large number of attractions and simply interesting places. In Moscow, you can see world-famous architectural monuments, museums, recreation parks, theaters, art galleries and much more. The choice of objects is incredibly large. The main attractions, of course, are the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square. For many tourists, they are the starting point. Wherever you are, getting to the main sights of the capital is easy. There are a lot of metro stations in the center of Moscow. Stepping onto any of them, you will quickly reach Red Square.
Heart of the capital
Red Square and the Kremlin are the heart of the capital and the whole country. Therefore, it is worth starting an inspectionthe most interesting places in the center of Moscow from this point. For many centuries, the Kremlin towers have been considered a symbol of Russian statehood.
The Moscow Kremlin is a whole complex of majestic buildings that have been built over several centuries. It consists of the Kremlin wall, towers and buildings of Cathedral Square, located inside the Kremlin. There are numerous museums here that are also worth visiting.
Another symbol of the capital is the Red Square. This is the most visited and interesting place in the center of Moscow. The area is usually open to guests. Only sometimes access to it is limited. This happens infrequently: only in the case of concerts or in preparation for important state events. Throughout history, the square has witnessed numerous events. Here the most fateful events took place. Troops went to war through the Spassky Gates, and the Tsar's decrees were read from the Execution Ground to the people.
The history of Red Square began with an ordinary trading place, which was taken out of the Kremlin in the fifteenth century. Trade has been active here for several centuries. And on holidays fairs and festivities were organized.
The appearance of the square began to change greatly since 1625. A Gothic tower was built above the Spassky Gates, which became the decoration of this place. The area between St. Basil's Cathedral and the Spasskaya Tower people began to call Red Square - that is, beautiful. ByBy order of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich in 1661, the square officially received its current name. Experts believe that Red Square is one of the most beautiful squares in the world. Its crimson ornate buildings make for a stunning complex.
Being in the very center of Moscow, you should see the Spasskaya Tower, which can be safely called a real symbol of the capital and the country. For many residents, the building is associated with the New Year, because there are chimes on it, which invariably announce the arrival of the holiday.
The tower was built in 1491, initially its height was half that. But in 1514, a gate icon of the Savior was installed in honor of the capture of Smolensk. Since then, the gates have been revered as sacred. It was possible to pass through them only with an uncovered head, and the icon was invariably bowed. The custom was honored even by foreigners. The Spasskaya Tower acquired its current appearance only in 1625, thanks to an English architect who designed a tent made in the Gothic style. A clock was also installed, which has been changed several times over the years. Today's chimes were installed in 1852. For the past 77 years, the tower has been adorned with a scarlet star on a thin spire, replacing the double-headed eagle that adorned the building from the seventeenth century until 1935.
St. Basil's Cathedral
St. Basil's Cathedral is another interesting place in the center of Moscow. It is no less recognizable than the Kremlin and Red Square. The temple is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The architectural complex consists of several churches, each of whichcrowned with a multicolored dome. The cathedral was built from 1555 to 1561. It was erected by order of Ivan the Terrible in honor of the victory over the Kazan Khanate. Each throne in the temple is dedicated to the days on which the main battles fell. Kazan fell on the Protection of the Mother of God, which was the reason for the appearance of the original name of the cathedral.
St. Basil's Chapel was built much later, in 1588. The relics of the holy fool Vasily, whom Ivan the Terrible himself was afraid of, were placed in it. In honor of him, the second name of the temple appeared. In the Soviet years, the cathedral was not demolished because it was incredibly beautiful. For some time there was a museum within its walls. Since 1991, the temple has returned to the bosom of the Russian Church.
The GUM store in Moscow is not only a large shopping center, but also a real legend. Absolutely all people in the USSR knew about this store, even if they had never been there. Arriving in the capital, the guests first visited GUM. And it was not at all necessary to make purchases, you could just look. The current store building was built in 1893 on the site of the old Upper Trading Rows. The Guild of Merchants announced a competition, as a result of which the project of the architect Pomerantsev won. According to his idea, the building was to be made in the pseudo-Russian style. It was very important that it be in harmony with other buildings of Red Square.
The grand shop was built with the help of the guild. He was the real pride of the Russian merchant class. In 1917, the merchants were driven out of the building, and theygoods were nationalized. The premises of the building housed Soviet institutions, communal apartments, which existed until the early sixties. There was a time when they even wanted to destroy the GUM, but the war prevented the implementation of the plan. And after its completion, it was decided to revive the store.
Currently, GUM is full of shopping departments. And yet, to this day, a reminder has been preserved that in Soviet times it was the main store of the USSR. Here everyone also plays hits of those times. And in the famous grocery store No. 1 you can buy juice in three-liter jars and tea with an elephant.
Another attraction of Moscow is the Alexander Garden. All guests of the capital try to visit this place. It is located close to all the other attractions of the city center. Luxurious flower beds, manicured lawns, shady trees and wide alleys make the Alexander Garden a favorite place to relax. The park covers 10 hectares. There is enough space in it to enjoy the silence and have a good time in the heart of the city. There are always a lot of people here, including not only guests of the capital, but also Muscovites. In spring and summer, it is pleasant to sit in the park in the shade of trees, and in winter you can go down the hills on a sled, which is equipped annually for people.
Presumably the Alexander Garden was laid out by order of Tsar Alexander I at the beginning of the nineteenth century, when the capital was rebuilt after the destruction from Napoleon's army. The project of Osip Bove involved the equipment of three sections - the upper,bottom and middle. In our time, such a division is only conditional. But the entrance to the Lower Garden is closed to the public. In the Upper Garden you can see the ruins grotto, reminiscent of the war of 1812. At the entrance to the park is the Eternal Flame and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.
Every guest of the capital has heard about the existence of Kitay-gorod. This is nothing but the ancient district of Moscow. Since ancient times, there were shopping streets and marinas. Now on its territory there are all the central streets of Moscow and the most important sights. The area begins near the eastern wall of the Kremlin and reaches Lubyanskaya Square, Novaya and Staraya Squares, as well as Kitaisky Proyezd. In the northern part it borders on Teatralnaya Square and Teatralny Proyezd, and in the south it ends at the Moskva River.
On the territory of Kitay-gorod all the central streets of Moscow begin: Ilyinka, Nikolskaya, Varvarka. All of them permeate the territory of the district and connect with other streets. Each tourist will certainly find himself on the territory of Kitay-gorod (we will tell you how to get to the district in Moscow later), because here is Red Square, the Kremlin, Alexander Garden, Vasilyevsky Spusk, Birzhevaya Square.
In the sixteenth century, Moscow nobility began to move outside the Kremlin, as there was no longer enough space for everyone. Gradually, the area began to acquire aristocratic features. Over time, Kitay-gorod turned into a business center of the capital. The easiest way to get to the historic district is by metro. Very centrally located stationsmany: "Alexander Garden", "Lenin's Library", "Arbatskaya", "Teatralnaya", "Okhotny Ryad" and others.
Moscow Manege is a historic building. Now within its walls there is a large museum and exhibition center. After a massive fire in 2004, the building was extensively rebuilt. Initially, the complex was built for the army, so that soldiers would be trained within its walls. But for its intended purpose, the building was practically not used. All sorts of exhibitions have always been held here.
Walking in the center of Moscow, you need to see Manezhnaya Square, which is a continuation of the Alexander Garden. It was equipped in the thirties of the last century. Later it was reconstructed. Now the Okhotny Ryad is located underground, and on the surface the square is decorated with fountains and sculptures.
The Old Arbat is glorified by artists and performers. The old street became completely pedestrian in the second half of the last century. It is believed that if you have not visited the Arbat, it means that you have not been to Moscow. And there is some truth in this. Tired of the bustle of the city, this is where you can relax and unwind your soul. The unique atmosphere of the Arbat and its lanes, courtyards is the atmosphere of old Moscow with its own flavor and famous songs of Okudzhava.
What to see on the Arbat? There are plenty of attractions in this area. On both sides of the street there are ancient buildings from which you can study history. Here is the restaurant "Prague", a house that belonged to relativesNatalia Goncharova. And in the house number 53 is now the museum-apartment of Pushkin.
The center of culture on the Arbat is the theater. Vakhtangov. The monumental building is located approximately in the middle of the street. It was built in the middle of the twentieth century. In addition, the best museums of Moscow are located on the Arbat. There are an incredible number of them in the center of the capital, and each institution is of great interest.
Guests of the city will be interested in the Museum of Optical Illusions, which is located in one of the lanes of the Arbat. No less attractive is the Museum of the History of Corporal Punishment, whose exposition tells about executions and torture.
If you want to plunge into the world of beauty, be sure to check out the Perfume Museum, located in a nineteenth-century mansion. Here you can not only learn a lot about the creation of perfumes and fragrances, but also smell vintage fragrances. The institution's collection is considered the largest in the world.
There is also a memorial apartment of Andrey Bely in the Arbat area.
Basmanny district is a former German settlement, which began to be built up in the fifteenth century, when the first German specialists in various industries began to be invited to Russia. You can get here by metro to the Baumanskaya station. The historic district is of particular interest to tourists. Here is the Cathedral of the Epiphany, the city library of Pushkin, the estate of Count Musin-Pushkin, the estate of the Decembrists. There are more than enough historical buildings on the territory of the Basmanny district. Each of them has its own history. Once upon a timethey all belonged to famous people.
Instead of afterword
The central part of Moscow is a cluster of the most interesting and outstanding places in the capital. Sightseeing should start from here. Here you will find objects for every taste.