Apennine peninsula. The specifics of nature and climate

Apennine peninsula. The specifics of nature and climate
Apennine peninsula. The specifics of nature and climate
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Located in the south of Eurasia, the Apennine Peninsula is washed by the waters of several seas: the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian - in the west, the Adriatic - in the east, the Ionian - in the south. The area of ​​the peninsula, which is 149 thousand square meters. km, with Italy share the world's smallest state of the Vatican and San Marino - the oldest republic on the planet. The width of the Italian peninsula (Penisola italiana) is small: in the narrowest part 130, in the widest - about 300 kilometers.

The entire length (approximately 1,1 thousand kilometers) of the Apennine Peninsula is crossed by a mountain system that largely forms its relief: the medium- altitude mountains of the Apennines, hilly foothills, volcanic plateaus and narrow strips of hilly plains along the coasts. The Apennine mountains are not a serious barrier to communication and have several long and easily accessible passes.

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The dense forests that once covered the Padana Plain and the Apennine Peninsula were exterminated for fuel and construction, they were cut down to increase the areaagricultural lands. Now preserved and newly restored forests occupy no more than 20% of the territory and are located mainly in mountainous areas and on hills. More common thickets of Mediterranean shrubs. In the mid- altitude zone cultivated crops - various crops and grapes, orange and lemon trees, almonds and fig trees.

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Due to deforestation and land cultivation, the natural habitats of wild animals that used to live here have disappeared. At present, there is no need to talk about a wide variety of fauna on the Italian peninsula. In ancient times, there were excellent pastures here, on which numerous herds grazed. Thanks to them, the country that occupies almost the entire peninsula got its name (Italy is a term that came from Greece and means “country of calves”).

Since the Apennine Peninsula is located in the contact zone of lithospheric plates, earthquakes occur quite often here. High seismicity is not the only reason for unrest among the inhabitants of the peninsula. Volcanoes cause no less concern, especially Vesuvius, one of the most active volcanoes in the European part of the continent. Vast areas around it are covered with lava and covered with volcanic ash, reminiscent of a catastrophic eruption at the beginning of our era and the death of ancient cities. One of them - Pompeii - was partially freed from under the thickness of the ashes and turned into a world-famous museum-reserve.

The Apennine Peninsula is diverseclimatic conditions. A warm Mediterranean climate is typical only for a relatively narrow coastal strip, while in mountainous regions the climate is cooler. The climate of the Italian Riviera is especially mild.

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The coast of the Ligurian Sea is protected from the cold northern winds by mountains, so the winters are rainy and warm (the average temperature in January is +8 degrees), and snow and frost are extremely rare. In summer, there is a lot of sun, but the heat on the seashore does not exhaust.

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