Table of contents:
- General information
- How did Kerch fortress appear? Brief consideration of the issue
- Project features
- Project implementation
- History of the fortress in the 20th century
- Fortress during the Great Patriotic War
- Fortress today
- Travel Reviews
- How to get to the facility?
- Interesting about Yenikale fortress
The Crimean peninsula is famous not only for its unique climate and nature. It houses a large number of objects of exceptionally important historical and cultural significance for modern Russia and for the peoples that were part of the Russian Empire. Among them is the fortress of Kerch. What are the most remarkable facts that reflect its history? What are the impressions of tourists who visited this building in Crimea?
Kerch Fortress, also sometimes referred to as Fort Totleben, is located on Cape Ak-Burun in the area of the Kerch Strait (in the narrowest part of this object). It was built in the 19th century by Russian fortifiers in order to protect the country's maritime borders. The construction of the structure began immediately after the Crimean War, and in many respects the initiation of the project was due to the unsuccessful results of the campaign for Russia.
Despite the fact that, under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, Russia could not have a fleet and fortifications in the Black Sea region, Alexander II decided to build a structure that would help protectstrait from the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov. For a long time, the fortress was used to accommodate army warehouses. Battles during the Great Patriotic War took place directly on its territory. Today the building is an object of historical and cultural heritage of Russia.
How did Kerch fortress appear? Brief consideration of the issue
How did Kerch fortress appear? In 1853 Russia entered the Crimean War. Due to the shortage of funds, the authorities of the country were not able to carry out the necessary strengthening of the approaches to the Kerch Peninsula. This was one of the reasons for the unsuccessful outcome (according to a common assessment among historians) of the military conflict for Russia. Therefore, in order to make the potential defense of the Kerch Strait more reliable, the authorities decided to build a powerful fortress. Cape Ak-Burun was chosen as the optimal place for its location.
In 1856, the first draft of the future Kerch fortress appeared. He was introduced by General Kaufman. The construction was led by Colonel Nat. In 1859, the well-known director of the Engineering Department of the War Ministry, Totleben, a well-known fortifier, joined the project. It can be noted that the emergence of a new Russian fortress on the Black Sea did not contradict the Treaty of Paris, according to which Russia's actions in the corresponding region were severely limited.
What features characterized the project for the construction of the Kerch fortress? First of all, it can be noted that its developers considered it necessary to placefortifications so that enemy naval vessels at the entrance to the Sea of \u200b\u200bAzov could be fired upon by coastal artillery. It was planned to strengthen the Kerch fortress by means of the main fort "Totleben", to the south of it - to place the Minsk lunette, to the north - Vilensky. It was supposed to place more than 500 guns on the firing positions of the fortress. It was planned to place more than 5 thousand people in the garrison, of which more than 1800 artillerymen. It was assumed that the fortress in Kerch should be prepared for long-term defensive operations.
The project, according to which the Kerch fortress was to be built, was approved in 1868. But the construction of the first two barracks began in the winter of 1857. The number of elements of the fortress placed above the ground was reduced to a minimum. The barracks were connected to combat positions through underground passages. Their total length was several kilometers.
Russian Emperor Alexander II first visited the building in 1861. After inspecting the fortress of Kerch, they were given an order, according to which, in honor of the soldiers who invested their labor in the construction of the structure, the lunettes received the same names - the Minsk and Vilna regiments. In turn, the main fort was named after Totleben.
Many of today's tourists ask this question when planning to visit the fortress in Kerch: "What is the correct name of the corresponding structure?". Actually, the fact that its key structural element is named after a famous fortifier predeterminesthe common name of the object, which sounds like "Fort Totleben". The structure in question is often referred to as: an underground fortress in Kerch. The fact is that a significant part of its facilities, as we noted above, are located underground.
Among other noteworthy historical facts reflecting the emperor's visit to the fortress is the following: Colonel Nat was promoted to major general. It can also be noted that in 1863, Alexander II, taking into account the position of Totleben, decided to abandon the construction of additional forts, and instead strengthen the existing structures. Subsequently, Major General Nat became the commandant and at the same time commander of the troops present in the area of the city of Kerch. The fortress of Totleben was actually ready by 1877.
The area of the fortress was about 250 hectares. In 1877, when the construction of the building was almost completed, the Russian-Turkish war began. The fortress of Kerch was potentially ready to be used during the battles, but in practice this did not happen. With the outbreak of hostilities in the Kerch Strait, a minefield was constructed. Soldiers from the garrison were waiting for the appearance of the armadillos of the Ottoman Empire. But they did not have to engage in hostilities.
History of the fortress in the 20th century
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the strength of the garrison of the fortress increased significantly - up to 9 thousand people. However, in 1905 it changed its status, becoming a warehouse fortress. After the well-known political events of 1905, Fort Totleben becameplace of detention of political prisoners. During the First World War, as well as during the period of political instability after the revolution of 1917, the fortress was not used as a military facility. However, in the 1920s, the warehouses located on it were stolen. Most of the ground buildings were destroyed. In the early 1930s, the fortress was again used by the army - the Red Army and the Navy used it to organize warehouses.
Fortress during the Great Patriotic War
The history of the Kerch fortress is closely connected with the events of the Second World War. So, in November 1941, she was captured by German troops. During the battles, the fortress was subjected to active bombardment and artillery fire. Wehrmacht troops were able to break through the defenses of the 51st and Primorsky armies, after which they entered the operational space in the flat region of the Crimean peninsula. Soviet troops began to retreat.
The lack of effective command predetermined the capture of the Kerch fortress by the Germans. But a month later, the Kerch-Feodosia operation began, during which the Germans were expelled from the territory of the Kerch Peninsula. Large-caliber naval shells, which were placed in the warehouses of the fortress and were temporarily at the disposal of the invader, again returned to the possession of the Soviet army. In addition, during the period when the fascist troops captured the building, the Red Army soldiers managed to evacuate a significant amount of materiel located in the fortress to Taman.
In the spring of 1942, German aviation carried out massive bombingKerch. This forced the Soviet command to transfer units to the fortress. The situation on the Crimean front was not the best for the Red Army - in May, the Germans had already come close to the city. The front command was forced to initiate the evacuation of personnel and the liquidation of military depots. In April 1944, Soviet troops liberated the fortress of Kerch. After the war, it again began to be used as an object for storing army supplies. It also housed a disciplinary battalion.
After the collapse of the USSR, the military units located in the fortress of Kerch were disbanded. This was accompanied by various destructive actions against army stockpiles stationed at the facility. In the early 2000s, however, the fortress was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Kerch Historical and Cultural Reserve. This allowed the researchers to begin work related to a detailed study of the structure, to clean up its territory from ammunition that got here during the Second World War, and to draw up excursion routes. Residents of Kerch and tourists had the opportunity to visit this legendary place and get acquainted with its unique history.
What can travelers who decide to visit the structure see? First of all, they will certainly be surprised by the very engineering concept on the basis of which the Kerch fortress was built. A photo of the structure is below.
Other objects surrounding the fortress are also impressive, such as a moat, which is about 3 km long, about 15 m wide, and about 5 m deep.caponiers. On the territory of the building there are a large number of underground passages, warehouses. The length of one of the underground tunnels is about 600 m.
What other notable objects does the Kerch fortress include? A photo of the tunnel, which is part of the construction complex, is presented below - you can look at the corresponding large-scale object and admire it for a long time.
It can be noted that many of the underground structures of the Kerch fortress have not yet been fully explored.
Today Kerch Fortress, Fort Totleben and other objects that are part of the structure of the building have the status of historical and cultural value. Many tourists traveling in the Crimea tend to visit here, take a tour of the place of military glory of Russia. What do travelers say who visited the fortress of Kerch, Fort Totleben?
Tourists who managed to visit these places are delighted. They are impressed by everything: the historical past of the Kerch fortress, the scale of the structure, the art of engineers, implemented in each of the sections of the structure of the structure. Many travelers admit that visiting the fortress has become one of the most impressive events during a trip to the Crimea. It can be noted that excursion routes around the fortress are highly appreciated not only by travelers, but also by experts in the tourism industry. The criterion for an appropriate assessment is both the interest of people in this place, and the programs of many tourist events, involving a visit to one of the most significanthistorical places of Russia.
How to get to the facility?
What will be of interest in the first place for many travelers planning to visit the Kerch fortress is the coordinates of this structure. You can get to it by shuttle bus number 6, which goes from the bus station. True, you have to walk a little - about half an hour. You can also take one of the buses that run through the village of Geroevskoye to Kerch. Any will do. It is important to get off on time at the stop "Highway Heroes of Stalingrad" or "Solnechny". After that, you need to follow on foot towards Pavlovsk Bay.
If a person travels by car, you can move along the Geroev Eltigen highway to Krasnaya Gorka Street. After - turn onto it and go to Tiritakskaya Square. Then you need to continue moving along Ordzhonikidze Street to the recreation center "Korabel". After - turn to Ulyanov street. You will need to pass the Holy Assumption Church, then turn onto Zyabreva Street. After - to Kolkhoznaya street, which will lead to the fortress of Kerch.
Some difficulty for the advance calculation of the route for a tourist planning to visit the fortress of Kerch: the address of the structure is not officially fixed. The main object to be guided by is Cape Ak-Burun. However, more information about the coordinates of the structure can be found in the historical and archaeological museum, which is located in Kerch at the address. Sverdlova, 7. In this institution you can also sign up for an excursion to the fortress.
Another option is to get to the structure by taxi, which is significantly more expensive, but, as a rule, in this case you candrive closer to the fortress. It happens that a tourist is not located in Kerch, but in another city, wants to visit the Kerch fortress. How to get to it in this case? First of all, you need to get, in fact, to the city of Kerch. The most convenient option for this is the bus that goes from Simferopol.
Interesting about Yenikale fortress
Along with the fortress of Kerch in the Crimea, there are many other remarkable historical sites. Some of them are located on the coast. Among them is Yenikale fortress in Kerch. It was founded by the authorities of the Ottoman Empire, who owned the Crimea before its transfer to the Russian Empire. Approximately Yenikale fortress in Kerch was built in the late 17th - early 18th century. The name of the building is translated from Turkish as "new fortress". The fortress is located directly within the boundaries of Kerch.
Yenikale began to belong to Russia, like the city of Kerch, since 1774. It can be noted that by the beginning of the 19th century, the structure had practically lost its significance in terms of military use. In 1835, a military hospital was located on the territory of the fortress, which worked until 1880. After that, the building was not actively used for a long time. During the battles during the Great Patriotic War, Soviet naval paratroopers fought in the area of the Turkish fortress. In 1944, they managed to liberate the corresponding part of the city from the German invaders.
What interesting facts can be noted about Yenikale fortress? For example, it is known that in its construction they tookparticipation of engineers from Italy and France. It is no coincidence that, according to some researchers, the location of the fortress was chosen - opposite the Chushka Spit. The fact is that the ships passing by were deprived of the opportunity to carry out maneuvers, and the artillery located on the shore could easily fire at them. As a rear, Turkish troops were able to use the Taman fortress.
Yenikale Fortress has a shape close to a quadrangle. Initially, walls with battlements were present in the structure of its construction. The fortress was fortified with a moat. Communication with the main part of the peninsula was provided by three roads. The first is from Kerch, the second is from the northeast direction, the third is from Dzhankoy.
Now there is a railway going through the territory of the object - from Kerch to the ferry crossing. Its operation, in accordance with the calculations of engineers, can cause significant damage to the fortress, which already suffered significant destruction in wartime. Therefore, it is expected that after the construction of the bridge connecting the Krasnodar Territory and Crimea, the corresponding railway line will be closed, and train traffic will be transferred to a larger highway.
If we want to visit Yenikale fortress in Kerch, how to get there? This building is located at a distance of about 11 km from the central bus station of the city of Kerch. You can get to it, as an option, by shuttle bus, which goes from the bus station to the sea ferry. This building and the Kerch fortress are located ona fairly large distance - about 15 km by road, about 10 km - by sea. Yenikale is located to the east of the central part of Kerch, the fortress we studied above is to the south. Both structures are located on the sea coast.
For many tourists, the noted difference in distance between objects is not an indicator, and they are happy to combine visits to both structures into one program. The Yenikale and Kerch fortresses, lying on the seashore, are united by the fact that both of them are unique objects of the historical and cultural heritage of Russia. Many travelers who leave reviews on thematic online portals are sure that a person who decides to explore the sights of the Kerch Peninsula should definitely visit both fortresses.