Table of contents:
- Location of the mound
- Name of the mound
- Ancient times
- Saur-Mogila during the Great Patriotic War
- First Monument
- Second Memorial
- Celebrations near Saur-Mogila
- Saur-Grave in folklore
- Saur-Mogila is a historical monumentUkraine
For many centuries, legends, tales, folk songs and ballads about the Saur-Mogila barrow have been transmitted. This old silent monument has seen many joyful and sad events in its lifetime. The courage and courage of the people, as well as the wise defenders of their native land, are told in folk ballads. To this day, it is not known exactly where this name came from. Some researchers argue that Saur is the name of a person who defended the interests of local residents, but, which is also possible, he was also a Cossack. This area in the Donetsk region was subjected to raids by the Tatars, and it was not lucky during the Second World War either. Today Saur-Mogila is a cultural and historical monument of Ukraine.
Location of the mound
Saur-Mogila is one of the highest points of the Donetsk Ridge, it is located in the Shakhtersky district of the Donetsk region. The height of the mound above sea level is about 278 m. In the old days, a Cossack post was equipped on its top, then the Mius Front was fortified. The memorial complex has already been created hereafter the end of the Great Patriotic War. The mound Saur-Mogila is a remnant of a spur of the Donetsk Ridge. It mainly consists of sandstone, in some places inclusions of rock crystal are visible.
Saur-Mogila is located on a plain, which is why it can be seen at a distance of up to 40 m. In sunny weather, you can see the Sea of Azov from the mound, although it is 90 km away. It is known that people lived on the territory of the modern Donetsk region as early as the 2nd millennium BC, because it was during this period that the upper part of Saur-Mohyla was poured. Tribes of the Srubna culture made a mound about 4 m high and almost 32 m in diameter.
Name of the mound
According to some sources, "saur", or "savur", is of Turkic origin (from the word "sauyr"), it is translated as "steppe height with a round top". A group of researchers is inclined to believe that the mound was named after the tribe of Sarmatians or Savromats. But folk art has preserved many legends and songs about the man Saur. He was a people's avenger, a Cossack who died at the hands of the Crimean Tatars, protecting his people from slavery.
Archaeologists excavated the burial mound and discovered a burial dating back to the 2nd millennium BC. e., the period of the Srubnaya culture. Who just was not in these parts. Sarmatians, Scythians, Khazars, Huns, Bulgarians, Cumans, Pechenegs, Mongol-Tatars - all these peoples once settled on the territory of the modern Donetsk region. For a long timenobody lived here. The silence of the endless steppes was occasionally broken by the cries of robbers driving slaves, hordes of nomads, the creak of Chumat carts and herds of wild animals. All this time, Saur-Mogila stood untouched. Where the monument is located today, the Cossacks made a patrol there, and they themselves mastered the surrounding spaces. It was here that the most bloody battles between Ukrainians and Tatars took place.
Saur-Mogila during the Great Patriotic War
For two years the territory around the mound was occupied by the Germans. It was here that from 1941 to 1943 the defensive structures of the first line of the Mius Front were built. The Saur-Mogila itself was of great strategic importance for the Germans. An observation post was based on its top. On the slopes of the mound, German soldiers set up dugouts, bunkers, reels, dug armored caps with fire weapons. Mortars, flamethrower tanks, and artillery pieces were used to defend the height.
Soviet troops encountered a difficulty - they had to attack from a steep slope, while the Germans could use a gentle one, which means they could use armored vehicles with might and main. Saur-Mohyla, Donetsk region, began to be stormed on August 28, 1943, the red flag was hoisted to the top on the night of August 29-30, but the Russians finally took the height only on August 31. The 96th Guards Rifle Division, 295th, 293rd, 291st Rifle Regiments, the 34th Guards Rifle Division, and units of the 127th Division took part in the capture. The ubiquitous "Katyushas" and cover from the "Ils" provided invaluable assistance to the military. When taking heightmany worthy, brave soldiers and officers died, many of them were posthumously awarded orders.
Already after the end of the war, the first memorial appeared on Saur-Mogila. It was a 6-meter limestone pyramid with a top in the form of a red star. Around the monument, a platform bordered by a chain was equipped, at the corners of which the cannons left after the hostilities were placed. There was also an inscription listing the names of the officers and soldiers who died while taking the height.
In 1960, the Union of Architects of the Donetsk region decided to announce a competition for the design of a new monument. 37 creative teams from all over the RSFSR made their proposals, the best option was proposed by the Kyiv organization. Thanks to Ukrainian architects, it acquired a new, more improved Saur-Mogila memorial. The monument was built with the money of miners who gave their daily wages. Funds were collected by Komsomol members of the nearby cities of Shakhtyorsk, Torez and Snezhny.
The grand opening of the memorial took place in the fall of 1967. More than 300 thousand people gathered to honor the memory of the fallen soldiers. Units of the Soviet Army, representatives of public organizations, and veterans came from all over the USSR. What did Saur-Mogila look like at that time? Photos of the 60s have survived to this day. At the very top, there was a 36-meter reinforced concrete obelisk, lined with granite. Inside it, the organizers arranged a room of military glory, inwhich collected maps, newspapers with relevant publications from the time of the war, portraits and photographs of participants in taking the height. An upper observation deck was also created.
At the foot of the obelisk, a 9-meter sculpture of a soldier was installed, looking to the west and clutching a machine gun in his right hand raised up. The warrior is wearing a cape, the floors of which flutter in the wind. The sculpture is made of cast iron, in 1975 the Eternal Flame was lit near it. There are two ways to get to the obelisk. One alley was laid by pioneers from different parts of the USSR, and the second by representatives of hero cities. The Komsomol members planted poplars and maples on the road to the mound. Only those who climb up the wide stairs will discover Saur-Mogila in all its glory.
The history of those terrible events is preserved on four huge horizontal combat pylons. Each of them is dedicated to a certain type of troops: artillerymen, infantry, aviation, tankmen. All high reliefs, compositions and inscriptions are based on real events. The pylons depict not fictional characters, but soldiers and officers of the Soviet army. At the foot of Saur-Mogila there is a lower observation deck, which offers a stunning view of the entire memorial complex. It houses artillery pieces that have been preserved since the war, the famous Katyushas, tanks, and mortars. There is a helipad at the very top of the mound.
Celebrations near Saur-Mogila
Absolutely all newlyweds from Torez and Snezhnoye after the wedding ceremony go to the mound to climbtop, lay flowers at the monument, thereby honoring the memory of the fallen soldiers. In Soviet times, it was at Saur-Mogila that Komsomol tickets were issued to young people. A huge number of people gather near the monument twice a year: on Donbass Liberation Day (September 8) and on Victory Day (May 9). Unfortunately, construction work, as well as mass visits to the mound, have significantly damaged its ecosystem. If earlier the steppes were overgrown with feather grass, now they are covered with weeds.
Saur-Grave in folklore
Several legends about the origin of the mound have survived to this day. The most popular story is about the Cossack Saur, or Savka, who was a watchman of the Cossack guard post, equipped on the top of the embankment. The warriors missed the Tatars and did not have time to light the fire in time. The sentinels with grief lit a fire in half and retreated, but Saur could not get out of the encirclement, for which he paid with his life. The embankment itself began to grow after that, so the returning Cossacks saw their brother on the top of the mound. There they buried him, and with their hats they made an even bigger peak.
Ukrainian folklore also preserves the legend of the young, brave peasant Saura. Pan abused his bride, so the young man went into the forest to become a people's avenger. First, he de alt with his offender. Saur killed the pan and set fire to his estate, then he robbed all the rich, distributing their we alth to the poor. When he died, the hero was buried at the top of the barrow.
Saur-Mogila is a historical monumentUkraine
For many centuries the famous barrow remained in the spotlight. Over the years, Saur-Mogila acquired new legends and events. It can be easily found on the map, the embankment is located near the village of Saurovka, not far from the city of Shakhtersk. Today, the memorial complex, as well as the mound itself, are protected by law. The legendary Saur-Mohyla has been declared a monument of antiquity and the heroic epic of the Ukrainian people.