Balneological resorts use mineral waters as therapeutic factors, which are formed under the influence of geological processes in the bowels of the earth and contain ions of various s alts.
According to the gas composition, radon, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, carbonic waters are distinguished, according to the mineral - chloride, hydrocarbonate, nitrate and sulfide.
Besides, the chemical composition of waters makes it possible to subdivide them into ferruginous, siliceous, arsenic, iodine-bromine and containing various biologically active microelements. According to the amount of mineral s alts in grams contained in 1 liter, they are divided into waters of high, medium and low mineralization.
Balneological resorts, their healing effect is based on the effect of mineral water baths on the human body. Gases and s alts dissolved in water have a specific local effect on skin receptors.
Carbonated mineral baths improve the activity of the cardiovascular system, their effect is favorable for coronary circulation, they normalize blood pressure, activate workthe central nervous system and the work of the endocrine glands. Russian balneological resorts using this type of water are located in Kislovodsk and Darasun.
Hydrogen sulfide baths dilate the blood vessels of the skin, facilitating the work of the heart, help the healing of skin lesions, remove protein decay products from the body. Hydrogen sulfide has a resolving, anti-inflammatory, desensitizing and analgesic effect. On the cardiovascular system, its effect is the same as that of carbon dioxide baths. Russian balneological resorts that provide treatment with hydrogen sulfide baths are located in Pyatigorsk and Sochi-Matsesta.
The effect of radon baths on the body is due to alpha radiation, which is released during the decay of radon atoms. Radon has an analgesic and sedative effect, lowers blood pressure, improves heart function. Under its influence, faster healing of injuries in bone and muscle tissues occurs.
Balneological resorts also use the healing effect of mineral water, which it has when taken orally. It is due to the s alts, microelements, gases contained in the liquid. Mineral water is used, as a rule, in the treatment of the digestive system.
Usually, for medicinal purposes, mineral water is taken right at the source - the pump room. Thus, its beneficial properties are better preserved.
Drinking mineral water acts on the body in accordance with its chemical composition.
Hydrocarbonate waters of the resorts of the CIS countries (Essentuki, Borjomi,Zheleznovodsk, Darasun, Morshyn) regulate the motor and secretory functions of the stomach.
Chloride water increases the secretion of gastric juice, as well as its acidity.
Sulfide waters, on the contrary, reduce the secretion of gastric juice and have a choleretic and laxative effect. In Russia, sulfide waters are used for treatment in Pyatigorsk.
Bulgaria also has a lot of mineral springs. Balneological resorts in Bulgaria, of which there are over 50, are located throughout the country. The most famous are Albena, Pomorie, Velingrad, Hisara.