Table of contents:
- SymbolRussian faith
- The best of the best
- The idea of a monument
- Second attempt
- Farewell, guardian of Russian glory…
- One of the most revered saints
- Address in Moscow required
The domes of Moscow are sung in dozens of poems. White-stone, golden-domed, "Holy Russia and the heart and head!" - so most often called the capital. The churches of Moscow are both the heart of Russia and the sights of a unique city. The center of the Orthodox and Russian worlds, it should burn “like a fire with golden crosses.”
Abundance of religious buildings
Churches, cathedrals, monasteries of the capital are known all over the world. Many churches in Moscow are under the protection of UNESCO. There are a lot of religious buildings in this city - there are 894 churches and chapels in the Moscow diocese. At the same time, there are 383 prayer rooms where services are held systematically. What is a temple? A temple is a house dedicated to God, it is a church where rites are performed, a sanctuary of the Lord. This is the place where there is an altar on which the Eucharist is celebrated (thanksgiving, or the essence of the life of the Church). In a broad sense, the temple is a place of service to high thoughts. From which we can conclude about the breadth of the concept of the word "temple".
Temples of Moscow continue to be restored and built. This is the need of the time. Very often churches are built at the expense of donations from Orthodox communities. There is a 200 temples program. Such energetic construction is associated with the general revival of the Church after the era of prohibitions and persecution and the physical destruction of places of worship. The most striking example is the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow. It was built in the 19th century, blown up in the 20th, and rebuilt in all its glory in the 21st century. But many of the destroyed churches are still waiting in line - for example, the Alexander Nevsky Cathedrals in Volgograd and Simferopol. But the capital is the capital, so that everything here is carried out in the first place. In addition, the residence of the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia is located here, and this obliges a lot.
The best of the best
Therefore, many churches in Moscow amaze with their restored and restored beauty. There are different lists of the most popular Moscow churches - according to the five-star system, which includes many indicators, by attendance, by beauty, by significance in history. Of course, there are such pearls that meet all the needs and requirements, serve as an adornment of the planet and are included in the world treasury. These primarily include St. Basil's Cathedral and the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow - the main church of Red Square and the center of Orthodoxy. In addition to the extraordinary beauty and uniqueness of both places of worship, they are united by the fact that both of them are temples.cenotaphs, that is, collective tombstones that do not contain the remains of warriors.
The Intercession Cathedral personifies the memory of those who died during the capture of Kazan, and the Cathedral of Christ the Savior was erected as a symbol of the victory over Napoleon - on marble slabs, the memory of all those who gave their lives for their Motherland in this war was immortalized. In addition, the names of Russian officers who defended Russia at the cost of their lives in the companies of 1797-1806 and 1814-1815 are engraved on its walls. How could this be blown up? It is terrible to imagine not even that the memory of ancestors was desecrated, but that this vandalism was sincerely approved by the majority of Soviet people.
The idea of a monument
Already before Christmas 1812, when the Napoleonic troops were completely expelled from the territory of Russia, Alexander I approved the idea promoted by General P. A. Kikin to build in Moscow a temple-monument to the national spirit that saved the country, which burned down during the Napoleonic campaign. An unsuccessful attempt to create a temple was made under the victorious Tsar Alexander I - the first stone was laid on October 17, 1815, and during the accession to the throne of the tough Nicholas I, the construction leaders were imprisoned for embezzlement. But the tsar did not refuse the idea of erecting a new Cathedral of the Savior in Moscow. He independently chose the site for construction, the project and appointed the contractor. The money was allocated only from the state fund.
The solemn laying of the temple was made inday of the 25th anniversary of the Battle of Borodino. Construction was carried out under the supervision of the king himself. Large-scale work was done related to the construction - the Catherine Canal was dug, which connected the Moscow River with the Volga. The cenotaph was built for 44 years - it was consecrated only on May 26, 1883. At first, the construction was supervised by the author of the project K. A. Ton, then the work was continued by his student, Academician A. I. Rezanov. The best sculptors and artists of that time took part in the construction of the temple. After the opening of the Cathedral of Christ in Moscow (abbreviation - XXC) quickly took a prominent place in the public and cultural life of Russia.
Farewell, guardian of Russian glory…
The huge cathedral itself was criticized by famous artists who considered K. Ton a mediocre architect. And yet, the new cathedral quickly became one of the symbols of Moscow. The music of outstanding composers sounded within its walls, the best singers of Russia performed. But for the new government that came after 1917 and declared atheism a state policy, there were no authorities. Guided by the words of the anthem "… we will destroy the whole world of violence to the ground …", the revolutionaries destroyed much of what had been the glory of Russia for centuries. The planned Palace of the Soviets, under the construction of which the memorial temple was demolished, was never built. Not for centuries, the Moskva pool was also opened. The tragic fate of the Temple excited many artists also because the XXC was not just a religious building, not just the main church, which had to be demolished exponentially. It was a monument to the defenders of the Fatherland.
Conscientiouscontemporaries were indignant at what had happened. In each article about the blown up temple there are lines of the poet N. Arnold. In 1931, he wrote holy words - “… there is nothing sacred for us! And isn’t it a shame that a cap of cast gold lay on the chopping block under the ax …” And, of course, there are references to the amazing prophetic painting by the artist V. Balabanov "The Swimmer", in which the author foresaw that the desecrated temple would be restored. In the 90s, a movement to recreate the cathedral could not but arise. The driving force was the idea of repentance. In 1990, a stone was erected on the site of the blown up temple, and in 1992 a fund was created, the funds of which were to be used to restore the XXS. Architects M. M. Posokhin and A. M. Denisov created a project for the revival of the temple. The times were troubled, something must have been done wrong, you can find fault with many things, nevertheless the truth triumphed. And now stands in Moscow a resurrected beautiful monument of tragic Russian history. Big, central, significant, great. It is somewhat different from its prototype - both in the color of the walls and the material from which individual parts are made, for example, medallions. But he already lives his own life, he is the heritage of our time.
One of the most revered saints
In Russia, the saints are especially revered. Many churches in Moscow were erected in their honor. But it happens that an already existing church acquires the relics of some saint and becomes incredibly popular among the people. So is the Church of the Intercession, located on the territory of the convent of the same name. It contains the relics of the Matrona of Moscow. Daily itmore than 3,000 people visit, on patronal holidays - up to 50,000.
Year by year, the popularity of the old woman is growing. Therefore, within the framework of the "Program +200" in the northern district of the capital, the largest temple of the Matrona in Moscow is being built. Construction should be completed in 2015. At the initiative of the Orthodox community that has existed here since 2008, it was decided to dedicate the new church to the blessed Matrona. The parishioners abandoned the standard project and wanted to build a unique church - it will be five-domed, with a free-standing bell tower, the large porch will also be crowned with two domes (total 7). The temple is designed for 500 parishioners. Obviously, it will be no less visited than the Church of the Intercession with the relics of the saint.
From all over Russia people go to Moscow to bow to the relics of Matronushka, as the people affectionately called her. Near the temple under construction there is a temporary, always crowded chapel. 88,000 people live in the Dmitrovsky district. The Temple of the Matrona of Moscow in Moscow is the first religious building dedicated to the blessed old woman. The need for it is long overdue. From the day of her death in 1952, her fame became all-Russian. She was canonized as a locally venerated saint in 1999, the general church canonization took place in 2004.
Address in Moscow required
Numerous churches and cathedrals of the capital have priceless shrines, which pilgrims from all over the Orthodox world come to worship. Therefore, the addresses of churches in Moscow are replicated and available. There are dozens of sites on the network with a detailed indication of the location and the optimalentrance to the desired church. You can also find the address in numerous guidebooks around the capital.
So, HHS is located at: Moscow, st. Volkhonka, building 15-17, which is on the left bank of the Moscow River. The Intercession Church with the relics of Matrona is located on Taganskaya Street, house 58. And the temple of the blessed one under construction is located in the Northern District, in the Dmitrovsky district, along Sofia Kovalevskaya Street, vl. 14a.