Table of contents:
- This is interesting
- Present and future
- Capital "Rocket"
- General characteristics
- Non-rocket "Rockets"
- Pride of the Land of Soviets
- Production in earnest
- How was it intended?
- The story never ends
- But was Rocket the first?
- Fast fleet: how was it?
- Opportunity and conservatism
- When perseverance conquers unbelief
Boat "Rocket" is a vessel equipped with wings below the waterline. It is classified as "P" and is designed to serve 64-66 passengers at the same time. The specific capacity is determined by the modification of the vehicle. The "Rocket" has dimensions of 2754.5 m, during the course it settles by 1.1 m, while idle - by 1.8 m. move at a speed of no more than 70 km/h, but the normative speed is from 60 to 65 km/h. The design has one propeller, and the main engine is set to 900-1000 horsepower.
This is interesting
The boat "Rocket" is not a single product, but a whole series, put into production back in the period of the Soviet Union. The projects on which these ships were built were called:
Began making ships in 1957. Their production continued until about the mid-70s. During this period, about three hundred boats were launched for river transportation. The first of them received the symbolic name "Rocket-1". By its construction by rightwas proud of the Krasnoe Sormovo plant.
The boat "Rocket-1" made its first voyage in 1957, it was launched on August 25th. The route ran between Kazan and Nizhny Novgorod. In total, the ship covered 420 kilometers of the water surface in just seven hours! The technical characteristics shown by the Raketa boat struck the imagination of the townsfolk. 30 lucky people became those people who for the first time in such a short time on the water were able to make this exciting journey.
Present and future
Since the boat "Rocket" (the speed of the vessel is up to 70 km/h) showed such excellent parameters, it quickly gained popularity. The name of this vessel among the people almost immediately became a household name. This tradition has survived to this day - today all ships resembling a classic Soviet motor ship are called “rockets”.
In the Soviet period, the river boat "Rocket" was not available to everyone. We althy families could afford a weekend trip to some beautiful countryside: pilots took their passengers to charming bays and bays that were inaccessible to travelers by land. But the price of such a cruise bite. For example, electric trains, which could take the same distance from the city, were several times cheaper. Nevertheless, it was simply impossible to imagine a better water recreation for the whole family than the Raketa boat.
Today, this ship is used daily. For example, it can be seen at the river station in Nizhny Novgorod. Faithful from day to dayships carry passengers between cities and take tourists on sightseeing routes.
Boat projects were immediately considered as schemes according to which it would be necessary to build water vehicles for the great Soviet capital - Moscow. Therefore, they were designed by the best shipbuilders of that era. Accordingly, as soon as the first Rocket-1 was launched, this ship ended up in the capital in the shortest possible time. Its first flight was made in 1957 during the summer months, when a festival dedicated to students and youth was held in the city. It was an international event, in which the authorities were going to show all the best that is in the Soviet Union. And the ships of the river fleet, of course, too.
Mass hydrofoils began to operate in the waters of Moscow only at the beginning of the next decade, where they enjoyed well-deserved success until 2006. And since 2007, the authorities launched a large-scale program designed to restore inland water transport, in particular, the Rocket Park. Since 2009, four such ships have been making regular flights:
- 102 (only for VIP flights);
- 191 (previously ran as 244);
Unofficial sources claim that other hydrofoils based on the legendary Soviet designs will soon appear as soon as the restoration work is completed.
A hydrofoil is aa high-speed ship that works on the principle of dynamic support. The ship has a hull, and under it are "wings". If the ship is moving slowly or standing still, the balance is provided by the Archimedean force. With an increase in speed, there is a rise above the water surface by the force provoked by the wings. This design solution minimized water resistance, which affects speed.
River types of water transport with wings have made what previously seemed impossible - high-speed navigation along the country's waterways. Now the trips began to take a matter of hours, which led to a rapid increase in the popularity of transport. At the same time, the ships are relatively inexpensive to operate and are characterized by a long service life. All this has become the basis for competitiveness, thanks to which, from the moment of their launch and to this day, "winged" types of water transport are serious rivals to other means of transportation.
"Rocket" was not the only vehicle of this type. The first launch of this landmark ship for river ships was carried out, and the very next year the Volga hydrofoil boat went on a voyage. By the way, it was demonstrated at the Brussels exhibition, and for good reason: the ship was able to get a gold medal.
Two years later, the first Meteor (another analogue of the Rocket) was launched, and then the Comet, which became the first in the sea for this type of ship. Years later, numerous "Seagulls" saw the light,Whirlwinds and Satellites. Finally, the Burevestnik ship, a full-fledged gas turbine ship, can be called the pinnacle of shipbuilding in this area.
Pride of the Land of Soviets
The Soviet Union had the largest base of hydrofoils, and this was largely ensured by the fact that the production of "Rockets" was well established. But the country itself did not use everything that it produced: channels for selling motor ships abroad were established. In total, "Rockets" were sold to several dozen different countries.
The development of ships with wings under water was mainly done by Rostislav Alekseev. "Rocket" is one of the important reasons for pride. The ship, created for routes up to half a thousand kilometers, fully justified the money invested in it and remains attractive to this day.
Production in earnest
When the Raketa boats showed their excellent parameters, proved their reliability and it became clear that they had considerable prospects, the government decided to start mass production of these ships. The task was entrusted to the More plant located in Feodosia. Somewhat later, it was possible to establish the manufacture of ships in the following cities:
- Nizhny Novgorod;
Production was also arranged on the territory of Georgia, in the city of Poti.
Produced ships exported to:
And today"Rockets" go to some of these countries. Over time, many ships were converted into dachas, restaurants, cafeterias.
How was it intended?
Looking at how successful the ship has become, one can't help but think that this is what the government planned. But was it really so? The project was developed under the control of the Ministry of Shipbuilding, funded by the state - this fact is indisputable. But historical reports prove that officials did not associate real expectations and hopes with these models. This was largely due to the non-standard idea as such - they feared that it could completely burn out. Yes, and there was such a time when it was very easy to remain “incomprehensible”, which could not only become a nuisance, but lead to complete collapse.
In an effort to do everything possible, the brilliant Soviet shipbuilder Rostislav Alekseev set himself the task of maximum - to design and build a ship and demonstrate it not just to anyone, but immediately to Khrushchev himself, that is, bypassing all the lower authorities. This audacious plan had a chance of success and was implemented in the summer of 1957. The ship “on all wings” raced along the Moscow River and was moored not at a random pier, but at the place where the Secretary General usually liked to stop. Alekseev personally invited Nikita Khrushchev on board. And so began the swim that allowed the ship to become legendary. Even then, the main person of the country appreciated the admiration of the public for the ship that overtook everyone. And the secretary general himself was impressed by the speed. It was then that the phrase was born, preserved fordescendants: “Enough for us to ride oxen along the rivers! Let's build!”.
The story never ends
Yes, the Rockets were popular, they were the pride of the nation, they were loved, known, admired, paid for. But time passed, the ships gradually became obsolete. Of course, at first they were repaired, but when the Secular Union went "downhill", it was not up to the ships. The technical and moral deterioration of river transport only increased. At some point, it seemed that there was practically no future for this direction of vehicles, at least not in the coming decades.
And a few years ago, they launched a program designed to revive the best motor ships of the Soviet Union - "Rockets". And along with them, it was decided to invest in Comets and Meteors. Despite the rather difficult economic situation in the country, the government managed to allocate money for work to improve transport and modernize ships to meet the needs of modern times. A special program was developed to support ships with wings underwater. The year 2016 became important, when the Kometa 120M ship had to demonstrate that the efforts made did not go to waste.
But was Rocket the first?
Now few people remember this, but the "Rocket" was not the first attempt to create this type of transport. Even before it, developments were underway, suggesting that the best speed could be achieved if wings were placed under the hull of the vessel. For the first time, the idea of such a vessel was born back in the 19th century!
Why was it not possible to design anything sensible before Alekseev did it? At first, steam engines were used, the power of which is rather limited. They simply were not enough to develop the speed at which the wings would be really useful. Therefore, at that stage, everything ended with fantasies and assumptions “how can this be.” However, these were interesting times: the public regularly saw all the new types of hulls and the specifics of the structure, the ships set records, but months passed - and they were already beaten by new ships. This race seemed endless. The people called the first ship equipped with wings underwater, called the "frog". Although he moved quickly, he jumped on the surface of the water and was rather unstable.
Fast fleet: how was it?
In 1941, in Nizhny Novgorod (which at that time was called Gorky) at the Industrial Institute, a thesis was defended on a glider with wings under water. The author of this project was Rostislav Alekseev - the one who in the future will take Khrushchev around Moscow with a breeze.
The drawings showed the commission an excellent vessel with high speed performance. It was supposed to work on a principle that had not yet been put into practice by anyone. There was simply nothing like it in the world at that time. To say who the jury was stunned means not to express half of their delight and surprise.
Opportunity and conservatism
The defense of the thesis was excellent for Alekseev andinspired him to write a report in which he proposed to bring the project to life. The document was sent to the Navy, and soon the answer was received: the schemes were unsuccessful, unacceptable and of no interest to serious designers.
Adult uncles in the Soviet Navy did not play with toys! Well, at the end they signed a rather flattering phrase for a young engineer: “You are too ahead of your time.”
When perseverance conquers unbelief
Some would have surrendered in Rostislav's place: there was a war, there was no money, the situation was catastrophically difficult, and it was completely impossible to imagine what the near future threatened. But the young specialist did not want to give up. Only a year had passed since the refusal letter, and now Alekseev had established contact with Krylov, the chief designer of a plant specializing in water transport. This smart man, able to look into the future, saw the possibilities of a breakthrough in the drawings of the newly minted engineer and wanted to take a closer look at them. What followed were several tense years in the conditions of the war and soon after it. Numerous skeptics scolded the project, the engineers worked on it tirelessly. And in 1957, finally came to real success.
The new ship was tested quickly, and immediately after that they headed for the capital, coincidentally, during the international festival that the head of state was supposed to visit. In just 14 hours, the ship arrived at the place, while the river boats used at that time covered this distance in about three days. Well, about how it turned outthe story goes on, you already know.
Did Alekseev himself expect such a triumph? Probably yes. Although it was difficult to guess the scale in advance. Are we now waiting for the return of the updated "Rocket" to the waterways of our country? Undoubtedly yes. This ship has become an important historical and national treasure, as well as an excellent everyday vehicle.