Table of contents:
- Three-engine aircraft
- Description and features
- Dramatic fracture
- Technical data
- Using a liner
2023 Author: Harold Hamphrey | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 19:35
In the early 1960s, a Boeing 727 took to the skies for the first time. This model became the second and last model of the concern, which received a three-engine layout. The very next model - 737 - had an engine layout that can be seen on almost every modern airliner - on pylons under the wings.
The model came out in response to requests from carriers for a small economical liner that could be used on short and medium haul flights. However, sales were poor at first. There was even an opinion among carriers that it was better to buy a used 707 than a new 727. This continued until a radical change in development. A new model is introduced in 1967. Flight and technical characteristics remain unchanged, with the exception of one parameter. The aircraft, codenamed "Boeing 727-200", had a payload capacity one third greater than that of the prototype.
It should be noted that in those years the decision on three engines in the rearThe fuselage was a typical variant for the aviation industry and Boeing, having abandoned the general canons, took a big risk. American aircraft received this layout option, take at least the MD-10 (11) model, released by McDonnell Douglas. It was also used in the Soviet aircraft industry.
"Boeing-727" and "Tu-154" (pictured above) outwardly are twin brothers. Both have a three-engine layout, all motors are pressed against the rear of the fuselage. The upper one is equipped with an air intake located in front of the keel, the other two are on the sides. Common features can be listed for a long time, but there is one difference. Boeing built its aircraft for the orders of several American airlines, and the 727 was used mainly on domestic routes. Yes, some of the planes were bought by other carriers, but due to some conditions, this plane mostly flew only over the States and Alaska.
Description and features
In addition to the location of the engines in the rear, the Boeing 727 boasted some distinctive features that are no longer used in modern aircraft. The brightest were the doors. The first models released before 1967 had only two of them. One is on the left, just behind the cockpit. The position of the second was greatly influenced by future users - airlines. The door was in the rear, under the keel, while it had its own gangway. Its takeaway was controlled by the aircraft's hydraulics. This solution allowed the model to be operated in small, underused airports.
Since the aircraft was developed with specific customers in mind, the wings were the second highlight. The companies wanted to be able to use the aircraft also at small airports with small runways. There was a problem here. On the one hand, the optimal operation of the engines is achieved at high altitude at cruising speed. On the other hand, a short lane prohibits landing at high speed. In order to meet both requirements, the wing must have certain characteristics. The presence of the engine under it makes it difficult to perform all the assigned tasks, as a result they were moved to the rear.
The internal layout of the Boeing 727 received a standard narrow-body type. The customer was offered two solutions to choose from. Or one economy - 6 seats in a row with up to 190 passengers, or the number is reduced to 140, but there will be two classes on the plane - business (4 seats in a row) and economy.
A few years after the start of sales, the developer had to change the project. The result was an extension of the fuselage by 6 meters due to the insertion of two blocks of three meters in length in front of and behind the wings. Given that this did not lead to much increase in maintenance costs, the situation changed, and the Boeing 727 became one of the best-selling aircraft of its time.
Before proceeding to the description of the modifications, we note that, in addition to the above-described elongation, the aircraft has undergone fundamental changes over its 20-year historypractically did not. Perhaps the reason is that the most used (as it is now called) 737 entered the market. Maybe obsolescence is to blame.
The first generation before processing was named "Boeing 727-100". Based on this model, three additional versions have been released:
- F is a pure truck. The difference of this modification was a large (2x3) cargo door in addition to those included in the basic project.
- С - cargo-passenger. At the same time, the feature was the ability to quickly re-arrange. The customer, on his own, could convert it either into a purely cargo one, or into an economy one.
- QF - This variant was not mass-produced. It was a standard cargo aircraft, only equipped with Rolls-Royce engines.
The second generation - version 200 - in addition to the purely passenger version received several additional options:
- F - only 15 trucks were built based on the 200.
- 727-200A - this code was received by an aircraft with an increased flight range. In addition to increasing the fuel reserve, this model received a reinforced structure, more powerful engines with thrust reverser, and new equipment. Also, a distinctive feature of all aircraft of the 200 series was the additional doors for passengers included in the project.
This is what the Boeing 727 line looks like. 800 first generation models and over 1000 - in 200A version.
A brief look at the technical performance of the aircraft:
- Wingspan - 33 m.
- Area - 157 sq. m.
- Height (along the tail) - 10.5 m.
- Fuselage width - 3.76 m.
- Length - 47 m.
- Cruising speed - 965 km/h.
- Ceiling - 12 2000 m.
- Flight range - 4020 km (for version 200A).
Separately mention the engines. The agreement with Rolls-Royce did not last long. Therefore, all aircraft received three identical engines from Pratt and Whitney. Aircraft of the first generation received one model with a thrust of 14 kN. Machines of the 200th model were given a choice of three options. The engines were produced by the same company, but at the same time they had a thrust of up to 17 kN + the ability to work in several modes.
Using a liner
The development of the aircraft was carried out under the specific orders of American airlines, and most of the aircraft did not leave North America. Nevertheless, for 20 years of production, the Boeing-727 managed to visit all corners of the globe. The plane was bought not only in the USA - it worked on the lines of other countries as well. In the mid-80s, production was completely switched to the 737 model. The aircraft made its last flights in the livery of poor airlines in Latin America and Asia.
In his homeland - in the USA - he flew on charter flights of a small company until 2008. Then she was declared bankrupt, and the planes (in the amount of 16 pieces) were put into metal. According to official figures, in the same 2008, there were no more than 500 aircraft out of almost 2000 produced inyour time. All of them have been converted to the F-version and are no longer used in passenger transportation.
To complete the picture, it is worth writing out a few reviews of those who happened to catch the plane. Note that even at the time of the collapse of the Union, he still carried passengers.
In the reviews it is interesting to compare it with the Russian brother, forgetting that there were no newfangled options in the years of production on aircraft. The old age of the car is noted, there are comparisons with the usual old Ikarus. Sometimes there are truly amusing comparisons with the Boeing 737. But although the first 737 came out during the years of the start of production of the second generation of the described liner, it was a completely different car, with a different interior, updated filling, and with a reserve for a great future.
Despite all these disadvantages, eminent cargo delivery companies are satisfied with the aircraft.
We briefly touched on most of the technical aspects of the Boeing 727. The photographs presented above resemble a representative of the Soviet aviation industry. Developed at the Tupolev Design Bureau, the liner has become almost the twin of an American. But appearance is far from everything that is being worked on in aviation. "Boeing-727" is forced out of the sky by new models of the concern of the same name. The Russian version, having proper care, is still working. Isn't this the best indicator of the difference between superficially similar cars?
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