Genoese fortress, Sudak, Crimea: photo, history, opening hours, how to get there

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Genoese fortress, Sudak, Crimea: photo, history, opening hours, how to get there
Genoese fortress, Sudak, Crimea: photo, history, opening hours, how to get there
Anonim

Many have heard of the small resort town of Sudak on the Crimean coast. The beautiful sea and spacious beaches are not the only pride of the village. The famous Genoese fortress (Sudak) brought him the greatest fame. It is about her that we want to talk in our article.

The most famous Crimean fortress

The Genoese fortress in Sudak has the status of a world-class monument. But for all its importance, it is little studied. Historians still cannot give a definite answer as to when the fort was founded. The fortress dates back to about the 13th-14th centuries. It should be noted that in the Crimea there are many architectural monuments and sights. But the Genoese fortress (photo is given in the article) is a special and very impressive complex. Of course, it has not been fully preserved, and traces of destruction are visible on the walls, but the power of the defensive structure of the Middle Ages is still visible. The Genoese fortress is the largest fortification that has been preserved on the Black Sea coast. It is of interest not only as an objectarchaeological research, but also as an outstanding cultural monument.

Towers and walls of the fortress

Which way to approach Sudak, from the sea or land, the fortress impresses with its grandeur.

Where is the Genoese fortress?

The fort is located on a high mountain, which is called Fortress. Standing on its top, you can see the expanses of the sea between Cape Ai-foka and Cape Megan. The Sudak valley, surrounded by mountains, stretches along the coast for more than eight kilometers. Mount Ai-Georgy rises in the north, Sokol in the south, and Perchem-Kaya in the west. Since ancient times, this area has been a fertile land for viticulture, horticulture and agriculture. An interesting fact is that the architecture of the fortress itself looks very harmonious against the background of the surrounding nature and seems to be one with it.

Fortifications

In the west and east, natural beams approach the Fortress Hill, which were used as defensive ditches in the Middle Ages. By the way, not only the Genoese used local reliefs for defensive purposes. Before the advent of their fortress, there were earlier fortifications erected by the Byzantines, which has been proven during archaeological excavations.

Pike perch during the period of the Crimean Khanate

In 1223 the city was captured by the Mongol-Tatars. The locals dispersed into the mountains. The subsequent Mongol-Tatar invasion took place in 1239 under the leadership of Batu Khan. The Genoese also appeared here after the weakened influence of the Tatars. They finally secured Sudak afterthe defeat of the hordes of Mamaia on the Kulikovo field.

Description of the ancient fortress

All the Crimean regions where the Italians lived were called the Genoese Gazaria. The center was in Kaffa. Usually the Genoese built their fortifications in the form of walls consisting of two rings. Behind the first ring were usually workshops and workers' houses, but behind the second - warehouses, the consul's house, administrative buildings, and the dwellings of the nobility.

View from the fortress

The Genoese fortress in Sudak occupied a fairly large area of ​​about 30 hectares. But despite this, she was almost impregnable because of her incredibly good location. The height of the fortress walls reached six meters. And in some areas and seven meters. In addition, the fortress was equipped with fifteen-meter towers.

The Genoese fortress in Sudak occupied a fairly large area: about 30 hectares. But despite this, she was almost impregnable because of her incredibly good location. The height of the fortress walls reached six meters. And in some areas and seven meters. In addition, the fort was equipped with fifteen-meter towers.

There were battlements on the walls, protecting from enemy shelling. In the outer ring there were fourteen towers located on the Fortress Hill, the fifteenth was located in the port area. By the way, to this day twelve towers rise above the fortification. One is separate, the other two are only ruins.

Three gates led to the Genoese fortress. So far, unfortunately, only the Chief have survived. fortress walls andthe towers are built from local gray limestone, shell rock and sandstone. Experts believe that the nature of the masonry gives reason to say that the construction was carried out by local craftsmen. On the territory of the fortress, apparently, there was a water supply system that delivered water from a source located on Mount Perchem. Unfortunately, the only building that is well preserved on the territory of the Genoese fortress is the mosque.

After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Turks sent their forces to the Crimea. Under their onslaught, all the possessions of the Genoese on the coast gradually fell. Including Sudak.

Fortress during the period of the Russian Empire

During the Russian-Turkish war, Russian troops occupied the peninsula. And yet the Ottomans did not lose hope of regaining their influence in the Crimea. Many times they tried to land on the coast. To combat them, Suvorov ordered to strengthen the coast. And on the territory of the Genoese fortress, an artillery redoubt was built. A little later, barracks were erected for soldiers and officers of the Kirillovsky regiment. These were the last construction activities carried out on the fortress territory. Subsequently, after the withdrawal of Russian troops from it, the fortress completely lost its purpose and gradually began to turn into ruins. Such is the history of the Genoese fortress.

History Museum

It is worth noting that serious damage to the fort was inflicted in the middle of the nineteenth century by German colonists who founded their village right at the ancient walls. On the territory of the fortress, they pastured cattle and smashedvineyards. By the end of the century, the destruction was so significant that the question arose of the need to preserve the architectural ensemble. After the establishment of Soviet power, the Genoese fortress in the Crimea received the status of a historical monument. She was taken under state protection. And already in the middle of the twentieth century, an intensive architectural and archaeological survey of the complex began. Local restoration work was also carried out.

consular castle

But after the Second World War, a historical and archaeological reserve was organized on the territory of the fortress. And in subsequent years, much was done in terms of studying the architectural monument.

In 1968, serious restoration work began. Their main goal is to restore those parts of the fortress walls that were in disrepair at that time. This is part of the western wall, the upper defensive ring, the Corner tower, the Nameless and Corrado Chikalo, as well as the eastern walls.

Already in our time, the Genoese fortress in Sudak (photo is given in the article) has been turned into a museum. The area of ​​the protected area is about 30 hectares. At present, from the buildings of the 10th-15th centuries, the Portovaya and Dozornaya towers, defensive walls, the Consular Castle, the Church of the Twelve Apostles, a mosque, the Catholic Cathedral of the Virgin Mary, seaside fortifications and the remains of city buildings have survived.

Tour of the Genoese fortress

Having a rest in the Crimea, you should pay attention to the numerous sights of the beautiful peninsula. Of course, most of the architectural monumentsfocused on the South Coast. Relative to them, the fortress is located aside. But still, the distance is not so significant, and therefore it is definitely worth taking the time to visit this stunning historical complex.

Sightseeing buses bring tourists to the gates of the fortress. Further, the groups lead in an easterly direction. Inside the fort, the ruins and the remains of some buildings immediately catch the eye. The greatest attention is attracted by the towers, miraculously survived to this day. To the west of the gate is one of them - Jacobo Torsello. And from the east side you can see the tower of Beriabo di Franchi. The ancient mosque, which has been well preserved to this day, is very interesting in terms of architecture. Its building is well-proportioned, resulting in a spacious and light interior.

mosque building

Immediately behind the mosque is the consular castle, which is a whole complex of buildings. Here is the Main tower and the battle. Both of them are connected by strong walls, between which there is a courtyard.

Inside the Consular Tower, there is a basement that can be reached by stairs. One of the rooms of the building is lined with smooth hewn stones. It is believed that it once served as a water tank. Nearby is the St. George's Tower, on which you can see the image of St. George the Victorious himself, from where the name of the building came from.

Barbican

Walking around the fortress, pay attention to the barbican. This is nothing more than a defensive fortification built in front of the main entrance. At one time the barbican was surroundeda deep ditch, it was possible to get into it only by a swing bridge. This made it difficult for the attackers. Once near the barbican, the soldiers came under fire from the walls and towers.

Water tanks

We have already mentioned that water supply was laid on the territory of the fortress. Water was supplied to special facilities that served to store water. The tanks have survived to this day. One of them had a volume of 185 cubic meters, and the second - 350 cubic meters. One of these rooms is currently the numismatic museum.

Pasquale Giudice Tower

On the way of tourists on the territory of the fortress, you will certainly meet the tower of Pasquale Giudice. It preserved a heraldic plate with the name of the consul and the date of laying the building. There are similar slabs in every tower, since they were all built at different times.

Viewpoint

Such buildings usually had several levels. Ammunition was stored on the lower level, loopholes for archery were on the second level, and ballista was fired on the third level. All towers of the fortress had similar premises.

Observation deck

There is an observation deck on the territory of the fortress, which offers a stunning panoramic view of the Sudak Bay. This place is an obligatory point of the excursion program. Here you can take unique pictures as a memento of such an exciting walk. Along the way, you will, of course, see the wish tree. There are quite a few of these throughout the peninsula. However, it is this tree that is colorful. If there is a cherisheddesire, then by all means buy a ribbon and tie it on a tree. Believe it or not, they do come true.

Fairs

Currently, various events, exhibitions, festivals, concerts and so on are periodically held on the territory of the historical complex. Every year, an international festival called "Genoese Helmet" is held here. It is worth remembering that the fortress was repeatedly filmed in films. On the territory of the complex you can make amazing shots for memory.

How to get to Sudak?

If you plan to visit Sudak, then you should know that the Genoese fortress is open from 10.00 to 18.00 every day without days off. In each resort village and city on the Crimean coast, a variety of excursion programs are offered, including a visit to the fortress. Therefore, you can use the services of local travel companies. Also possible sea trips to Sudak by boat.

Temple decoration

If you have your own transport, then you can easily get to your destination along the highway. In Sudak, everyone will show you where you need to move on. You will have to leave the transport near the stop "Selo Cozy". And then, to see the ancient ruins, you need to go on foot.

How to get to the Genoese fortress by public transport? Arriving at the Sudak bus station, you need to transfer to a fixed-route taxi No. 6 or 5. The reference point should be the stop "Selo Cozy".

Instead of afterword

Genoese fortress –one of the brightest sights of Crimea. A unique historical building and an endlessly fascinating place for a family visit. Here you can not only see historical buildings of great interest, but also enjoy the beauty of landscapes. In the evening, the complex, although closed to visitors, turns on a special backlight. At this time, the fort looks even more impressive and mysterious.

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