Table of contents:
- Building a city
- Modern Salavat
- Whose name is the city?
- Gazprom NeftekhimSalavat"
- Symbols of the city
- Population, culture, education
- Streets and neighborhoods
- Sights of the city of Salavat: where to go, what to see, what to do
- Outskirts of Salavat
- Interesting facts
- Climate and ecology
- Geographic reference
One of the youngest cities, but at the same time the largest industrial center in Bashkortostan, is Salavat.
Building a city
The history of the city of Salavat begins in 1948, when the first stone was laid in the feather grass steppe, not far from the city of Ishimbay. So a small and at first nameless village appeared, consisting of barrack-type houses. It was simply called New Building.
At that time, there was a plan for the restoration of the country's agriculture, providing for the development of the oil industry in Bashkiria, where rich deposits of black gold were discovered back in the 30s, the land here was literally saturated with oil. But the development of deposits had to be postponed until the post-war period.
The city of Ishimbay took an active part in the construction of the new settlement: survey work was carried out, checkpoints were created, warehouses for storing equipment were built, housing was gradually built, motor depots, markets were built, a brick factory was built, the primary function of which wasprovision of created objects with building materials. The town grew.
At the same time, the construction of the famous petrochemical plant No. 18, which today is called Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat, began. This large-scale construction involved both local residents and prisoners who were brought here from all over the Soviet Union. Other volunteers also came. Someone stayed in these places forever, but many, unable to find housing for themselves and unable to withstand the difficult conditions at the construction site, returned home.
A year after its founding, thanks to the petition of the administration of the Ishimbay City Council of Deputies, the village got a name and began to bear the name of the Bashkir national hero Salavat Yulaev.
After a couple of years, a small working settlement, growing, became a large industrial center, the population of Salavat grew, industry developed, as a result, the New Building in 1954 received the status of a city.
In the 60s, workers' barracks began to be replaced by new two- and three-story brick houses, and ten years later the reconstruction of the old housing stock was finally carried out: barrack-type houses were demolished. The face of the city was changing for the better.
At the same time, TV broadcasting appeared in Salavat. The petrochemical plant increased its turnover and was awarded the Order of Lenin for the early fulfillment of the five-year plan. And the optical-mechanical plant, erected in the city, began to produce binoculars for various needs, including night vision models.
When in the countrythere was a food crisis, many residents of the city were saved by personal subsidiary plots. And now Salavat residents cannot imagine their life without land, so most of them have their own gardens and orchards.
In the 80s, to provide the population of Salavat with drinking water, the construction of a water pipeline began. Water was brought from the vicinity of the Zirgan village and, as it turned out later as a result of research, the water coming from the taps in the apartments of the city residents turned out to be mineral and can be used for medicinal purposes.
In Bashkortostan today it is the third largest and largest city in terms of output due to its favorable natural and geographical location.
Salavat has a good location in relation to the industrial centers of the republic, or rather, proximity to the oil enterprises of the city of Ishimbay and the chemical plants of Sterlitamak. There is also a pipeline linking the city's refinery complex with the Kargaly gas field in the Orenburg region. The network of roads and railways makes Salavat's communication with many regions of Bashkortostan and Russia accessible.
In the city, which emerged as an oil refining center, machine building, woodworking industry are now developed, reinforced concrete structures and glass are produced here. Two thermal power plants have been launched and are operating. All this is the main component of Salavat's economy.
Today the city is thriving. New residential areas are being developed, various cultural institutions are being built. Much of this meritrefinery manuals.
Farit Farrakhovich Gilmanov has been the mayor of Salavat since 2011.
Whose name is the city?
The city got its name in honor of the national Bashkir hero - Salavat Yulaev, who, while still quite young, decided to take the side of Emelyan Pugachev, becoming his closest associate. Having received the rank of colonel, Salavat led a detachment of Bashkirs (about 3,000 soldiers) and took part in the Peasant War in 1774.
In battles, Yulaev showed himself to be a resourceful commander and a brave man, he showed ingenuity and intelligence. All his life he fought for the freedom of the Motherland. Salavat became famous not only because he knew how to fight, he was a scientist and a poet, he read a lot, he was respected by the old people and admired by the young. Yulaev was a deeply religious person, which is impossible not to notice after reading his works.
On October 27, 1774, on behalf of Catherine II, General Potemkin personally addressed Salavat Yulaev with a proposal to repent and admit his guilt. He was promised forgiveness, as well as all other participants in the uprising, who did not fail to take advantage of this. But Yulaev, together with his associates, took an oath not to conquer. A month later he was captured.
Salavat Yulaev has become a symbol of the centuries-old struggle of the Bashkir people for their freedom. He is a national hero. Films have been made and books written about him.
Besides the city, streets, a hockey club and a district in Bashkortostan are named after this famous person.
In Russia, the city of Salavat is known for its oil and gas processing industry. Here is the largest plant in this industry.
Its story begins in 1948, at that time it began to be built as Industrial Complex No. 18. In subsequent years, rapidly developing, it turned into a huge oil refining center.
The range of products also grew: ammonia, motor gasoline, fuel oil, fatty alcohols, diesel fuel, high and low pressure polyethylene, styrene, butyl, ethylene, propylene, polystyrene, carbamide and mineral fertilizers were produced and are being produced. Over 80 items in total.
Gazprom neftekhim Salavat is one of the leaders of Gazprom Groups. Their products are used in more than twenty countries of the world, including the USA, China, Europe and, of course, almost all regions of Russia.
Recently, in order to reduce the level of environmental pollution, the company is trying to apply new technologies in this area, seeks to reduce the consumption of energy and materials, thereby supporting the program to protect water bodies and the atmosphere from harmful emissions.
Residents of the city of Salavat working in this company enjoy a full package of benefits.
The company is actively involved in the improvement of the city. Thus, an ice arena with a swimming pool, a stadium and a city park were created in Salavat. A large he alth camp "Sputnik" has been opened for children, which in 2005 was recognized as the best corporate camp in Russia. In the city andmodern recreation facilities have been built in the vicinity.
Today, Airat Karimov is the General Director of OAO Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat. Under his leadership, the company continues to develop rapidly.
Symbols of the city
The coat of arms of the city of Salavat on its main field has an image of a rider galloping with raised hands, which personifies the national Bashkir hero - Salavat Yulaev, and a falcon flying nearby expresses the desire of the local people for freedom.
The seven-petal kurai (angelica) flower symbolizes the friendship of the seven clans that laid the foundation for the unity of the peoples of Bashkortostan.
The city owes its creation, growth and current position to a large extent to the petrochemical enterprise, which plays an important role in the economy of Salavat. Therefore, it is not surprising that the third symbol imprinted on the coat of arms was a gas tank - a tank for storing liquefied natural gas.
Population, culture, education
Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, and, of course, Bashkirs live in a multinational city. In total, the population of Salavat today is just over 150 thousand people.
The first settlers were prisoners and prisoners of war who were brought here to the construction site, as well as volunteers arriving from different parts of the former Soviet Union and local residents. Many of them have found homes here and started families.
Now schools, gymnasiums and other educational institutions have been built and are operating for the residents of the city of Salavat. Operateinstitutions teaching economics, management and the humanities. Branches of the Moscow State Institute of Economics, Statistics and Informatics, the Ufa State Petroleum Technological University and the Ufa State Academy of Economics and Service were opened.
Music and art schools hospitably open their doors in the city.
There is a local history museum, palaces of culture, youth clubs, a cinema center, an art gallery and a city library. The Bashkir Drama Theater operates, where new interesting performances are staged every season, and for the convenience of the audience, headphones are offered - translators.
Streets and neighborhoods
Salavat was originally built up as a workers' settlement with strict parallel streets, which would be easy to navigate. And even later, when the village had already grown to the size of a city, it was decided to leave such development, as it turned out to be very convenient.
The population of Salavat divides its city into two parts - old and new. Old Salavat is located in the northern part. Here you can still find here and there the very barracks from which it all began.
Practically all major avenues and streets converge towards the center of the city of Salavat - Lenin Square. The administration building is also located here.
The most popular and favorite street among locals is Pervomaiskaya, it is also called "Salavatsky Broadway" and is often chosen for their walks.
But the population of Salavat prefer to buy housing in a new area called"Desired". Now this is the most prestigious area, here is the construction of comfortable cottages. The development in the east of the city was organized by Salavatnefteorgsintez OJSC, a solid and largest company, which leaves no doubt that the Zhelanny district will soon be the best and most convenient for living.
In general, the city is quite clean and green: its center is literally buried in foliage.
Sights of the city of Salavat: where to go, what to see, what to do
Right at the entrance to the city, all visitors are greeted by a stele erected to the people's leader - Salavat Yulaev. This obelisk is not the only monument of the city of Salavat in honor of the national hero, there is one more, which is located in one of the old squares.
On other crowded streets and squares there are monuments to A. S. Pushkin, V. I. Lenin, F. E. Dzerzhinsky, A. Matrosov and O. Koshevoy. And at the intersection of two streets (Lenin and Oktyabrskaya), in one of the cozy alleys, you will be met by a rather nice monument to a simple janitor.
On Ufimskaya Street is the Holy Assumption Cathedral, rebuilt in 2002 in honor of Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy. This is an Orthodox church with a strict and solemn look at the same time.
In the eastern part of the city, made in white and green, the cathedral mosque flaunts. In the same place, in the east, a recreation park has been restored and landscaped, where the population of Salavat likes to spend their free time. There are walking paths,set up playgrounds, created an artificial lake where you can go boating.
For lovers of nightlife, the clubs "Heat", "Pyramid" and "Tochka" open their doors, where you can often meet the coolest DJs in Russia and Europe.
Those who want to plunge into a homely, cozy atmosphere can opt for the Classic retro cafe, and you can taste the generous oriental cuisine by visiting the Rahat-Lukum restaurant, where all guests will be surely fed and tasty.
For lovers of outdoor activities, rafting on the river or climbing the Shikhany Mountains is arranged in summer. In winter, you can ride on the slopes of Zirgan-Tau. And at any time of the year you can admire the beautiful views of the diverse and generous nature of this region.
Outskirts of Salavat
On the highway Salavat - Ishimbay, not far from the city, there is one of its main attractions - the memorial complex "Land of Yurmata". It was created as a tribute to and memory of those who laid the foundation for the history of the Bashkir people, as well as in honor of the fallen defenders of the Motherland.
During the Great Patriotic War, from the villages where Salvat now stands, almost one and a half thousand people went to the front, a third of them died in fierce battles. The names of the fallen heroes can now be found on the slabs of the memorial. Wreaths are brought here, commemorative events are held here and veterans are honored, young people come to the complex after the registry office to leave flowers and remember those who gave them a happy future.
- The Bashkir language is considered the most common and revered language here, but the population of Salavat is also fluent in Russian. The names of places, establishments and streets are written simultaneously in two languages.
- Salavat is a city of republican subordination and is not part of any district of Bashkortostan.
- Local residents have a tradition - after registering the marriage, the newlyweds go to the Belaya River and there, near the city beach, throw bouquets of flowers into the water.
- There is no exact date for the celebration of the Day of the city of Salavat. It is usually celebrated in late May - early June. The founding date is considered to be June 12, 1954 (the day the workers' settlement received city status).
Climate and ecology
The city is located in Russia, in the southern part of the Republic of Bashkortostan and occupies the picturesque left bank of the Belaya River. Due to the fact that Salavat is located, as it were, in a lowland, there are quite frequent fogs here.
The rest of the climate is no different from other cities in central Russia. It has snowy and rather long winters. The temperature at this time of the year is about minus 20 degrees, on the coldest days it can drop to minus 35.
Spring is sunny and quite warm. During the melting of ice, the Belaya River, on which the city is located, overflows quite widely. So that the city would not be flooded, it was decided to make the coast higher and strengthen.
From July to mid-August - the hottest days, when even the asph alt can melt. At this time of the year, the population of the city finds salvation inwater, despite the fact that the river, on the banks of which the townspeople rest, is considered polluted due to wastewater from various enterprises. This fact does not particularly bother anyone, on the contrary, local residents compose jokes and jokes about the unfavorable ecology of their area.
The problem of air pollution and the Belaya River has existed in Salavat since the day it was founded. Modern enterprises have recently been intensively developing a program to protect the environment, using the latest technologies in this area. Control over chemical emissions into the atmosphere is being carried out, programs are being developed to clean up waste tanks and green the streets.
The city is located in Russia, in the southern part of the Republic of Bashkortostan and occupies the picturesque left bank of the Belaya River.
Time is 2 hours ahead of Moscow.