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Ghana, a country on the west coast of Africa, is one of the most prosperous countries on the continent. It is often called the "island of peace" in the middle of one of the most chaotic regions of the planet. Ghana shares borders with Togo in the east, Côte d'Ivoire in the west and Burkina Faso in the north, and is washed by the Gulf of Guinea from the south. Recently, oil has been discovered in the waters of the Gulf, so the country has significant prospects of becoming a major oil producer and exporter in the near future.
The leading role in the economy is played by agriculture, which employs about 40% of the working population. Ghana is one of the world's largest exporters of cocoa, as well as commodities such as gold and precious timber.
Country area - 238,500 sq. km, population - 25,199,609 people. (data as of July 2013). This number includes more than 100 ethnic groups, each with its own unique language. The official state language is English, which has been widely spoken since the days of British colonial rule.
In 1957, Ghana (formerly known as the Gold Coast) became the first sub-Saharan African country to gain independence. In 1966Ghana's founding president, Kwame Nkrumah, was overthrown in a coup d'état. After him, Ghana was ruled by a series of military despots, most of whom were displaced by coups. The last period of democracy began in 1992, as a result of which the country became Africa's leading democracy.
Ghana has several interesting tourist attractions such as castles. Most major international airlines operate from Accra International Airport. Domestic air transportation has an important role to play, as evidenced by their abundance. The country has a well-developed telecommunications sector with 6 mobile operators and a number of ISPs.
Not far from the equator
Ghana is located in West Africa, on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea, just a few degrees north of the equator. Nearly half of the country extends below 150 meters above sea level, with the highest point at 883 meters. The coastline is 537 km long and consists of low sandy shores intersected by large streams and rivers, most of which are navigable only by canoe.
Moist rainforest, wooded hills and many streams and rivers stretch north from the coast almost to the border with Côte d'Ivoire. This area, known as Ashanti, produces most of the exported cocoa, minerals and timber. To the north there is a belt, the height above sea level of which varies from 91 to 396 meters. There are savannahs and grassy plains,vegetation is represented by low shrubs.
The climate is tropical. In the eastern coastal strip it is warm and relatively dry, in the southwestern part it is hot and humid, in the north it is hot and dry. In the south, there are two pronounced seasons of showers - in May-June and August-September, in the north, the boundaries between the seasons of showers are blurred. In January and February, a dry northeasterly wind blows. The annual rainfall in the coastal zone averages 83 cm.
The 520 km long artificial lake Volta begins at the Akosombo dam near the southeastern city of Yapei and rushes north. The lake generates electricity, provides inland transportation and is a valuable resource for irrigation and fish farming.
Ethnic we alth
In 1960, about 100 language and cultural groups were recorded in Ghana. Ethnic tensions in the country have been fueled by hostility dating back to the era of colonialism, the difference in the influence of the colonial system in different parts of the country, as well as the uneven distribution of social and economic benefits since independence.
Ethnic tensions remain one of the most powerful factors influencing the political life of Ghana. For this reason, ethnically based political parties are unconstitutional under the current "Fourth Republic".
Ghana has a republican form of government. The President simultaneously performs the functions of head of state and government. HisThe residence is located in the Osu Castle, located in the capital of Ghana - Accra. Executive power is represented by the government, legislative - by the government and parliament. The third branch of government - the judiciary - is independent of the executive and legislative branches.
Education is a priority
At the time of independence (in 1957), Ghana had only a few primary and secondary schools and one university. Over the past decade, Ghana's spending on education has accounted for 30-40% of its annual budget.
Ghana currently has 18,530 primary schools, 8,850 lower secondary schools, 900 upper secondary schools, 28 colleges, 20 technical schools, 6 public universities, 12 polytechnics.
Most Ghanaians have relatively easy access to primary and secondary education. The government supports public schools with funds for tuition, uniforms and free school meals.
Teaching is predominantly in English.