Table of contents:
- General information
- Historical Brief
- History of Burggrave Fortress
- History of the Imperial Castle
- Chapels of the Imperial Castle
- Other buildings of the Imperial Castle
- History of the Imperial City Fortress
- How to get to the fortresses?
- Reviews of tourists
One of the most popular and important attractions in Germany, according to tourists, is the Nuremberg Fortress. It is also called the Kaiserburg, since in fact it is not one building, but a whole complex of fortresses and other structures located in the German city of Nuremberg. The oldest building dates back to the thousandth year of our era.
The Nuremberg fortress is a real monument that has come down to us since the Middle Ages. It includes the Emperor's Fortress, or Kaiserburg, and the Burggrave Fortress. They are located in the western and eastern parts of the complex, respectively.
The Nuremberg Fortress sits on top of a sandstone cliff, which, in turn, hangs over the waters of the Pegnitz River, and below, at the foot, the Old Town of Sebaldsk proudly stands. If you get to the observation platform, you can see the streets of this very Old Town, as well as the houses of the Crafts Quarter.
It is known that the fortress and Nuremberg during the Second World War werethe strongest bombing, so most of the fortress is restored, and not the original.
Now in the castle-museums you can see how the German nobles lived in the Middle Ages. And during the Second World War, the dungeons of the fortresses were used as secret warehouses, where the loot from various museums was taken out, including the world-famous Spear of Destiny.
As already mentioned, the history of the complex began in the eleventh century, and in subsequent centuries, due to constant conflicts between neighboring noble households, the fortress was destroyed and rebuilt more than once. Nuremberg then is located right on the bend of especially important trade routes, so most often it was in a prosperous period.
When the world reached the late Middle Ages, the city was already one of the central cities in Europe. And in 1354, Charles the Fourth issued a special decree, according to which, all subsequent emperors of Rome were obliged to hold the first Reichstag in Nuremberg.
Actually, this immutable rule was observed until the end of the Thirty Years' War, and after the Reichstag moved to the city of Regensburg. When the empire collapsed, the city, along with its fortresses, went to Bavaria. Global restructuring and restoration began here only in the 19th century, and already in the 30s of the last century, Nuremberg became one of the main Nazi cities, where he promoted his ideology.
History of Burggrave Fortress
The first of the Nuremberg complexThe building of the Burggrave was erected in the fortress. It is central at the moment. The fortress is located in the northern part of the city, all on the same rocks mentioned above. In the annals of Nuremberg, the Nuremberg Fortress of the Burggrave is mentioned as early as 1105 AD. At that time, all the lands located under the fortress walls belonged to the counts of Raab.
In the 13th century, namely in 1219, the ruler Frederick the Second grants freedom to the inhabitants of the fortress according to a document that assumed liberties. From that moment on, the power of the burggraves gradually decreases, and they lose their importance in the region.
By 1420, the burghry had completely disappeared as such, and all fortifications passed into the possession of the city. Unfortunately, little remains of the Burggrave Fortress from that time, but it is still possible to unearth the oldest building dating back to the eleventh century - a tower with five corners. The twelfth and thirteenth centuries brought to the fortress a chapel named after St. Walpurga. By the way, it is still active to this day, the priests still hold services there.
History of the Imperial Castle
From the photo of the Nuremberg Fortress, you can see that the largest part of the complex is the Imperial Castle, located in the western part. It began to be built during the reign of Emperor Conrad III, that is, in 1140, but the end of construction was already in the era of Frederick the First.
The first building erected was the castle itself. His most significantthe components at that time were two halls: the Knights and the Imperial, as well as the residential part, in which the ruler settled with his retinue.
Chapels of the Imperial Castle
During the same period, a local chapel was erected - Double. It consisted of two chapels, which were interconnected by a special overlap with a small hole, since one was on top of the other.
The meaning of the two chapels was that the upper part was intended for the emperor and his associates. Also, the upper room was heated, so the emperor could go up there at any time of the year and in any weather. But court workers and guests of the palace could enter the lower one.
Other buildings of the Imperial Castle
On the territory of the Imperial Palace there is also an interesting Round Tower with an observation platform, from where a fantastic view of Nuremberg and all the surrounding environs opens. Within the walls of the fortress there is also a well, which once supplied the inhabitants with water if the castle was besieged by the enemy. The depth of the well is forty-seven meters, and they cut it right in the rock.
Today the Imperial Castle has been turned into a museum and well restored. On top of that, there are wonderful gardens around it, where you can take amazing pictures.
History of the Imperial City Fortress
Another fortress, which is part of the Nuremberg complex, belonged to the imperial city and was built later than all. It also includes several structures and is locatedin the eastern part of the complex. The status of "imperial city" Nuremberg won thanks to Frederick II. The largest building of the fortress is a tower called Luginsland, created in 1377, during the fall of the power of the burgraves in Nuremberg. From this tower you can see the Burggrave Fortress in all its grandeur.
The emperor's stables are located between the Luginsland tower and the Pentagonal tower in the Burggrave fortress. The stalls were erected in 1495 and had very interesting architectural features: in addition to keeping horses in them, grain storage facilities were organized in the attics of the stables, and large windows were made in the walls in order to ventilate the upper area. By the sixteenth century, the fortress had its own bastions.
How to get to the fortresses?
The opening hours of the Nuremberg Fortress depend on the time of year. So, from April to September, the territory opens at 9 am and closes at 6 pm, but from March to October the doors of the complex open at 10 am and close at 4 pm.
You can purchase one full ticket, which includes a visit to all paid zones, it costs 8 euros (570 rubles). Children under the age of eighteen visit absolutely all buildings for free.
How to get to Nuremberg Fortress? There are not many hotels near the complex, so the Old Town will serve as a guide. To get as close as possible to the fortress, you can use the city bus or train, the stop is called "Nuremberg". You still have to go from it to the final go altwenty minutes walk.
The address of the Nuremberg Fortress will be useful for those who travel by car, as it can be entered, for example, in "Google Maps": Burg 13, 90403 Nürnberg.
Reviews of tourists
According to the reviews of tourists, it is best to set aside a whole day to explore the complex, since you will have to walk a lot. Also, many people say that it is better to wear comfortable sneakers with non-slip soles, as in some places you can slip well on the stones worn to a shine.
Many were surprised that not everywhere you can go for free. So, tourists write that you need to be prepared to give a small amount of money when visiting the museum rooms of the Imperial Palace. Also, a ticket will have to be purchased by everyone who wants to inspect the well. The observation tower is also paid.
According to most reviews, in addition to the Nuremberg Fortress, you should definitely go down to the Craftsmen's quarter, as in local houses the craftsmen are still engaged in their family and hereditary business: glassblowers sit somewhere, blacksmiths somewhere, and somewhere - those are jewelers. By the way, it is advised to visit the Old Town even before Christmas, when a real colorful fair unfolds in the narrow streets.
In the reviews, travelers write that it is best to organize a walk along the fortress walls, towers and courtyards in the morning, while the sun illuminates the castles and the photos are not dark. But it is best to go up to the observation deck after lunch, because by this timethe sun is already moving to the other side and is not shining through the camera lens.
The disadvantage for tourists was the lack of information in Russian both on booklets and in the excursion program.