Table of contents:
- Origin of the name
- History of Tula
- History of the Tula Kremlin
- Assumption Cathedral
- Epiphany Cathedral
- Spasskaya Tower
- Odoevsky Gate Tower
- Ivanovskaya Tower
- Pyatnitsky Gate Tower
- Tower On the cellar
- Location and opening hours of the Tula Kremlin
- How to get there?
- Interesting facts related to the city of Tula
In our article we will talk about the Tula Kremlin and Tula. Historical facts will be mentioned. We will also describe the cathedrals and towers that are on the territory of the Kremlin. Below are photos of the Tula Kremlin. But first things first.
At a distance of 195 km from the capital of the Russian Federation, on the banks of the right tributary of the Oka (the Upa River), there is the regional city of Tula with more than 500,000 indigenous people.
The article focuses on the history of one of the old cities of Russia and its main attraction - the Tula Kremlin, which is located in the central part of the city, is a rectangle with a perimeter of walls of more than one kilometer and covers an area of more than 6 hectares.
Origin of the name
Historians have several versions about the origin of the name of the city. According to one version, the word "tula" from the Turkic language (the language of a group of Turkic peoples) is translated as "take by force", "capture".
Another version says that during the Golden Horde, this territory belonged to the wife of Khan Dzhanibek - Taidula. Probably, the name of the city came from her name.
But the most plausible version,which is taken as a basis, they consider the explanation of the Russian ethnographer Vladimir Dahl that Tula came from the word "snuggle up", that is, to find a place where you can hide, find shelter and protection.
History of Tula
Archaeological excavations show that representatives of the Slavic tribe Vyatichi lived on the territory of the modern city.
In those days, the settlement was an area enclosed by a wooden fence (palisade). In the Nikon chronicle (named after the author, Patriarch Nikon), this settlement was first mentioned in 1146.
In the XIV century the settlement became the center of crafts and trade and was part of the Ryazan principality. In 1380, after the battle between the troops under the command of the Moscow prince Dmitry Donskoy with the Golden Horde (Battle of Kulikovo), a gradual unification of all Russian lands takes place. During this period of history, according to the will of the Ryazan prince, in 1503 the Tula region became part of the Moscow principality.
In 1507, at the direction of the Sovereign of All Russia Vasily III (father of Ivan the Terrible), the construction of the stone Tula citadel began on the banks of the Upa River. After 13 years, the Kremlin was built, and the city, which was formed around the defensive structure, becomes a reliable defender from external enemies from the south side of Moscow. The main occupation of the inhabitants of the city was the manufacture of weapons.
In 1595, a Kuznetsk settlement was organized from gunsmiths. There, craftsmen made various kinds of military weapons. The material was taken from a quarry of natural accumulation of hydroxidesiron, which was near the city. After some time, Tula gunsmiths became famous throughout Russia.
The twenty-year war between Russia and Sweden (1700-1721) forced the first All-Russian Emperor Peter I to pay great attention to the manufacture of Tula weapons. In 1712, on his instructions, the construction of Russia's first arms factory began in Tula, whose products became known throughout the world.
From the end of the 19th century, metallurgical and metalworking enterprises and branches of the main arms factory began to be built in the city. Now Tula is considered one of the major industrial centers of Russia. Its centuries-old history and cultural monuments that have survived to this day attract tourists from many countries of the world. Tula, according to tourists, is considered a city-museum.
Guests of the city are attracted, in addition to the Tula Kremlin, by the Museum of Weapons. In one of the factory management rooms in 1873, on the initiative of the factory manager, an exposition was opened for visitors, created from samples that were made at the Tula arms factory.
In 2012, a new museum building was built (Oktyabrskaya street). There, tourists can see the weapons of Russian military equipment of past centuries.
The building of the museum of samovars known throughout Russia is located in front of the main entrance to the Tula Kremlin. The latter is considered the main attraction and pride of the indigenous people of the city and the region.
History of the Tula Kremlin
At the beginning of the 16th century, the ruler of the Moscow principalitywas Vasily III, who, given that the Crimean horde at that time posed a danger to the Russian state, began in 1507 the construction of an oak fortress on the Upa River. In 1514, it was decided to build a stone building inside, similar to the Moscow Kremlin. Thus, since 1521 and throughout its history, the Tula Kremlin has been an impregnable citadel for an external enemy.
For the local population who settled around, the stone fortress constantly became a shelter from the invasion of the enemy. Over the next centuries, the borders of the Muscovite state expanded. In this regard, Tula, being in the center of Russia, ceased to play the role of a border fortress.
By that time, according to historical documents, there were more than a hundred private buildings and various city institutions on the territory of the Tula Kremlin.
The first street of the city then began from the territory of the citadel. It was called "Big Kremlin".
The city leadership began to pay attention to this historical object associated with the history of Tula and all of Russia since the end of the 19th century. Regular restoration work began to be carried out in order to restore the original appearance.
Now tourists and guests of the city can visit the historical site, which is located on Mendeleevskaya Street. They can see the Assumption and Epiphany Cathedrals of the Tula Kremlin, seven towers and museums located on the territory of the citadel.
The main temple of the Russian Orthodox Church (Russian Orthodox Church) is the Assumption Cathedral. In the Tula Kremlin, he is inits central part. The cathedral is the main attraction of the complex. A wooden church stood on this site in 1626. After 135 years, the church was dismantled and a stone church building was built on its foundation - the Assumption Cathedral.
After the revolutionary events of 1917, the church was closed. At that time, the building housed various city institutions. In 1991, he was transferred to the leadership of the Orthodox Church. It was it that organized the restoration work of the cathedral and the adjacent bell tower. Now tourists can visit the current church and see the restored interior.
In 1855, on the territory of the Tula Kremlin, the construction of the Epiphany Cathedral began in memory of the dead Russian soldiers during the military operations of Russia against the invasion of Napoleonic troops (Patriotic War of 1812). Seven years later, the church building was consecrated. The iconostasis was built by Nikanor Safronov, and the master for creating icons for the temple was the artist A. Borisov.
Unlike the Assumption Cathedral, which was considered "cold" and in which services were held only in the summer, heating was carried out in the Church of the Epiphany. Therefore, church services were held here all year round. The temple building was a two-story five-domed church, where there were two chapels: St. Nicholas and Prince Alexander Nevsky.
Since 1930 the cathedral has been closed. Initially, it housed the flying club. And in 1950, he was given to the club of athletes.
During this time, the appearance of the temple has been changed:Of the five chapters, only one has survived - the central one. Now in the building of the former cathedral since 1989 there are expositions of various types of weapons that were manufactured at the Tula Arms Plant.
Approximately in 1517, the Spasskaya Tower was erected on the territory of the Tula Kremlin in Tula. This building got its name thanks to the church of the same name, located nearby.
After the construction was completed, an observation tower with a bell was built on the upper platform, which warned the population about the approach of the enemy. Therefore, in documents drawn up in the 16th-17th centuries, the tower was called Vestovaya.
Odoevsky Gate Tower
In the 16th century, the road began from this tower in the direction of the future administrative center of the Odoevsky district (75 km from Tula). Throughout its history, it has changed its name several times. In those days it was called "Kyiv Gates". After some time, due to the fact that there was a church (chapel) built in the name of the Kazan Mother of God nearby, the tower was renamed and given the name Kazanskaya.
In 1784, during the first restoration work of the Tula Kremlin, the original appearance of the tower was changed. Then a dome with a spire was built, on which the emblem of the Russian state was strengthened.
With this architectural addition, the inhabitants of Tula expressed their gratitude to Empress Catherine II for the allocated money from the royal treasury for the restoration of the tower, from which the main avenue of the city, V. I. Lenin Avenue, begins in our time.
In the northern side is the tower of the Tula Kremlin, called Ivanovskaya. Its peculiarity lies in the fact that, like the others, it does not have holes (loopholes) for firing at the enemy. This made it quite difficult to hit a man with aimed fire.
In the 16th century, Ivanovskaya Tower was called Taynitskaya. This is due to the fact that there was once a basement under the building. It was in it that there was a passage more than 70 meters long, designed to supply drinking water to the defenders of the fort in the event of a long blockade. At the end of the 17th century, the wooden tunnel collapsed. And it was not restored, because by this time it had ceased to fulfill the role of its destiny.
Nearby is a church built in memory of the dead Russian soldiers during the defense of Tula from the troops of the Crimean Khan Devlet Giray in 1552, and the tower was renamed Predtechenskaya. Now the building is called Ivanovskaya.
Pyatnitsky Gate Tower
Next to the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Mother of God (Church of Paraskeva Pyatnitsa), tourists pay attention to the beautiful tower of the Pyatnitsky Gates.
Since the 16th century, weapons, combat uniforms (armor), ammunition and banners of military units have been stored in this building. At one time, the tower served as the main entrance gate for named guests. In the 18th century, a small Christian chapel was added to it. Then for some time, according to the documents of thosetimes, was called Znamenskaya.
Tower On the cellar
The only tower that has a square shape. The design included a basement. After the construction was completed, weapons and gunpowder were stored in it.
Next to the tower, in the wall, there was a passage to the river. He covered himself with an iron shield, made according to the color and shape of the main wall. From the 18th century until 1921, the coat of arms of Moscow of that time was installed on the spire.
Location and opening hours of the Tula Kremlin
Tourists visit Tula mainly to walk around the territory of the museum, which since 2006 has been on the preliminary list of UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, and to see historical cultural monuments.
Where is this attraction located? Address of the Tula Kremlin: Mendeleevskaya street, 2. How does this historical object work? It is very convenient for tourists to visit the Tula Kremlin. Its working hours are as follows: from ten in the morning until ten in the evening, seven days a week. Access to the territory is free.
How to get there?
Given the popularity of this historical site, the city transport management has compiled routes so that you can get to the stop "Sovetskaya Street" or "Lenin Square" using buses No. 16, 18, 24 or trolleybuses No. 1, 2, 4, 6, 8.
Tourists in their reviews note that Tula is a truly unique museum city, and it cannot be confused with other historical cities of Russia. This is supported by the facts.
Interesting facts related to the city of Tula
Let's take a look at them:
- Tula is famous (except for the Tula Kremlin) thanks to Tula gingerbread, weapons and samovars. Each of these areas is dedicated to a separate museum. All of them are located in the central part of the city.
- The famous Tula gingerbread appeared at the beginning of the 18th century.
- In the Tula region there is the smallest town in Russia - Chekalin (95 km from Tula) with 950 indigenous people.
- The Weapons Museum is considered one of the oldest museums in Russia. Collecting exhibits for him throughout Russia began with the personal instructions of Emperor Peter I.
- The Tula Kremlin will turn 500 years old in 2020. Preparations for large-scale celebrations on this occasion began in 2017.
- The horse railway (konka) first appeared in Tula in 1888. At that time, rails were laid connecting the Kievskaya outpost with the railway station.
- The Tula Circus, which opened in 1870, was the first cultural institution of its kind in Russia.
- Microminiature master Aleksey Surnin is buried at the Chulkovsky city cemetery. He was the prototype of Lefty in the story of the same name by Nikolai Leskov.
- There is an exotarium in Tula, where more than 500 species of snakes are kept. This collection is considered the largest in the world.
- The accordion, which is considered a traditional Russian musical instrument, first appeared in Russia in Tula.
- In 1637, by order of Peter I, a Dutch metal casting master created the first factory for the production ofmetal.
- In the 19th century, 52 samovar factories functioned in Tula, and each had its own form of production. It was then that the famous saying appeared: “Go to Tula with your samovar” (do something extra).
- In the city in 1889, the only monument in Russia to the Tula sanitary doctor Peter Belousov was erected. It was he who was the organizer of the construction of the city sewerage and water supply. The monument was erected in a park named after him.
- In 1976, for the heroism shown during the Second World War, Tula received the title of Hero City.
- Tula is the birthplace of famous film actors - Vyacheslav Innocent and Vladimir Mashkov. Russian-American actress Maria Uspenskaya was also born in this city.
Now you know why Tula is interesting. We examined various sights of the city, including the Tula Kremlin, the Museum of Weapons, cathedrals. We hope that this information was interesting and useful to you.