Table of contents:
- In which ancient city is the pyramid of Kukulkan located?
- Capture of the city by the Toltecs
- Secrets of the pyramid
- Information about the deity
- An unusual visual phenomenon
- Unsolved mysteries of a highly developed civilization
- Interesting facts about the pyramid
- 365 steps
- Temple acoustics
- Another phenomenon
- Exploring the city and the pyramids
- New mysteries
Mexicans are proud of their famous pyramids, considering them symbols of the country. In the Middle Ages, buildings were most carefully hidden from the Spaniards, taking care of the protection of ancient artifacts.
To see the cities built centuries ago, tourists from all over the globe come to Mexico to visit the settlements destroyed by time. Not a trace of many of them remained, and the pyramids erected by the Aztecs remained almost in their original form.
In which ancient city is the pyramid of Kukulkan located?
The sacred city of Chichen Itza, whose name translates as "tribal well", was founded in the 12th century AD. The huge cultural center of the Mayan peoples, located on the Yucatan Peninsula, was intended for religious ceremonies.
The Pyramid of Kukulkan is the main attraction of the ancient settlement, attracting the close attention of not only travelers, but also scientists studying the Mayan culture that has left many mysteries.
Capture of the city by the Toltecs
Two centuries later, the city was captured by the Toltecs, who turned it into the capitalpeninsulas. The leader of the Indian invaders was the high priest of the god Quetzalcoatl, the creator of the world and the creator of people, whose analogue, according to Mayan beliefs, was Kukulkan.
The pyramid-temple, which was erected in honor of the deity, is located in the heart of the settlement. The height of the building at 24 meters made it visible from anywhere in the city. Consisting of nine platforms, the structure is precisely oriented to the cardinal points.
This mysterious pyramid was built with precise mathematical calculations, and each element is closely connected with the geographic and astronomical cycles of the earth.
Secrets of the pyramid
Researchers of the Mayan civilization are sure that it was used for cult rites and sacrifices to appease a deity named Kukulkan. The pyramid, on the upper platform of which there was a temple with four entrances, still keeps a huge number of secrets.
It was found that the sacred structure is a real material embodiment of the complex calendar of a bygone civilization associated with ancient legends.
Information about the deity
Kukulkan is the main god in the mythologies of the Toltecs and Maya. He was represented in several guises and most often depicted in the symbolic images of a snake with a human head.
The deity who controlled fire, water, earth and air was very revered by the Indians. They called him the Feathered Serpent, and this is the second name given to the great god Kukulkan. The pyramid built in his honor is famous all over the world for its incredible visual effect.
An unusual visual phenomenon
As scientists calculated, if the builders of the temple were mistaken by even one degree, then there would simply be no miracle for which tourists come.
This is a one-of-a-kind phenomenon for which the Pyramid of Kukulkan is famous. The city of Chichen Itza in autumn and spring, on the days of the equinoxes, is filled with people who have come from the farthest corners only to contemplate the memorable picture of a huge snake gliding over the surface of an ancient structure.
The staircase that runs along the northern side of the pyramid ends at the base with stone snake heads, symbolizing the supreme god. And twice a year, at a strictly defined time, a giant image appears that does not disappear for more than three hours. There is a complete impression that the huge serpent has come to life and begins to move.
Unsolved mysteries of a highly developed civilization
This effect is achieved thanks to the play of light and shadow, and the ancient Mayans, who watched the picture, imagined that a revived god descends to them on earth. And some visitors to the pyramid noted that after a stunning spectacle, spiritual cleansing begins.
The appearance of the moving kite twice a year testified to the advanced culture and science of the lost Maya civilization. One can only admire the vast knowledge of topographers and astronomers, who accurately calculated the moment the image appeared, which delights and makes you think a lot.
How could the Mayans who lived several thousand years ago withoutspecial devices to obtain an image, the appearance of which is programmed with such incredible accuracy? Was it a highly developed civilization or was it assisted by an alien mind? Unfortunately, there are still no answers to many questions that concern mankind.
Interesting facts about the pyramid
Speaking of mythology, it is necessary to mention that the Maya considered the realm of the dead to consist of nine heavens, through which all inhabitants went to the afterlife. Therefore, it is not surprising that on the faces of the pyramid the same number of ledges helped, according to beliefs, to leave this world with dignity.
The Mayan calendar year was not twelve, but eighteen months. At the top of the pyramid was a sacred temple, to which four steep stairs led, located on different sides and the number of which corresponded to the seasons.
The stairs, clearly directed to different directions of the world, divided into eighteen flights, served the Maya for astronomical observations.
The calendar cycle of the Indians consisted of 52 years, and the same number of reliefs on the walls of the main sanctuary.
Steps of the pyramid of Kukulkan, the total number of which is 365, as well as days in a year, arouse incredible interest among researchers. When looking at them from below, it seems that the width of the stairs is the same for the entire distance. However, this is an optical illusion, and in fact it expands upwards.
Each of the four stairs consists of 91 steps, and the last is the upper platform, on which thea temple whose main deity was Kukulkan.
The Pyramid, in fact, is the largest solar calendar, and all the figures given are not a mere coincidence. But that's not the only thing she's interested in. In addition to visual effects, the building surprises with unusual acoustics. Scientists who have studied the temple complex for a long time have found that it is an excellent resonator.
The sounds of the footsteps of people climbing the stairs inside the pyramid miraculously transform into the voice of a sacred bird for the Mayan peoples. It has been established that the ritual rites of sacrifice were necessarily accompanied by the cries of the quetzal.
It is not known how the ancient builders accurately calculated the thickness of the stacked walls to achieve such amazing acoustics in the halls of the temple.
The nearby playground surprises with its phenomenal properties: people who were at a great distance from each other talked and perfectly heard every word. And not a single person could eavesdrop on the conversation, unless they approached one of the interlocutors.
Such strange acoustics seem impossible to many, but any visitor to the pyramid can still experience this phenomenon.
Exploring the city and the pyramids
The mysterious pyramid of Kukulkan, the photo of which is presented in the article, receives thousands of travelers who have heard about its wonders. And among many religious monuments of history, it is the most visited. Nobody knows whathappened to the ancient settlement of Chichen Itza, but for some reason the inhabitants left the city in the XIV century, and over time it was lost in the green jungle.
In the last century, large-scale research of the pyramid began with its simultaneous restoration. On the restored steps, every tourist will be able to climb to the very top and enjoy the amazing view of the ancient city.
The Pyramid of Kukulkan in the city of Chichen Itza is considered a real man-made miracle, the secrets of which will be unraveled by new generations. In the meantime, we admire the mathematical calculations made by ancient scientists without precise instruments, and the builders of the pyramid, who erected a powerful structure by hand.
Recently, researchers discovered another smaller pyramid inside the temple. For what purposes it was used - no one knows. The distance between the two structures is dotted with tunnels with secret passages.
A year ago, the scientific world was stirred up by the news that an underground lake had been found under the pyramid. Let's wait for new discoveries that will shed light on the ancient Mayan civilization.