Table of contents:
- Air travel
- Rail transport
- Crossing the border
- National currency
- Main Attractions
2023 Author: Harold Hamphrey | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 19:35
Mongolia is a country located in Central Asia. Its northern neighbor is Russia, and on all other sides it borders on China. Mongolia has no access to the sea. Most of the country is occupied by plateaus and mountains. The vast Gobi Desert is also located here.
Mongolia has a very diverse natural environment. Here you can find semi-deserts and deserts, steppes, forest-steppes, even taiga forests. Among the large lakes, Khubsugul and Ubsu-Nur are especially well known. In their fauna, flora and structure, they are similar to Baikal. The largest rivers are the Selenga, Orkhon, Dzabkhan, Kobdo and Kerulen. The climate in this area is sharply continental.
Those who are planning a trip to Mongolia should keep in mind that this is a rather unusual country. In order to understand it, you should not study the bright pictures in the brochures. Best of all, only dry statistics will tell about this state.
So the trip toMongolia is a trip to a country where the population density is 1.7 people per 1 sq. km. km. Moreover, 40% of the population lives in the capital of the state - Ulaanbaatar.
It is also known that there are thirteen horses per inhabitant of Mongolia, as well as the fact that during the year you can observe 260 sunny days when there is not a single cloud in the sky. Many may be surprised by the significant difference between winter and summer air temperatures. In the cold season, the thermometer often drops to -40 degrees, and in the hot season it rises to +40.
To all of the above, it is worth adding the adherence of the local population to the traditions of their ancestors. Yurts in this area are not at all considered a relic of the past. They act as full-fledged and often the only possible houses. But at the same time, one can also observe openness to the civilized world in Mongolia. Here, local shepherds talk on mobile phones and, as is known from the same statistics, Mongolian youth often go to study at universities in Europe.
As it may seem at first glance, tourism and this Asian country are simply incompatible things. And yet, those who decide to travel to Mongolia are waiting for the purest blue lakes, endless amazingly beautiful steppes, the hot Gobi desert, the snow-covered peaks of Altai, Buddhist monuments, the history of Genghis Khan, vibrant festivals, the incredible hospitality of the local population and generous cuisine. Tourism in this country is at the proper level. That is why many foreigners go to Mongolia. At the same time, travelers have the opportunity to go fishing, hunting, sightseeing, and also take part in caravan or auto tours.
How to get to Mongolia by plane? To do this, you will need to purchase air tickets from Moscow to Ulaanbaatar. It is best to use direct flights. They are operated by Aeroflot and Miat Mongolian Airlines. There are flights several times a week.
You can also buy air tickets from Moscow to Ulaanbaatar for transit flights that involve transfers in other countries. It should be borne in mind that there is only one international airport in Mongolia. It is located 15 km southwest of the capital of the country, the city of Ulaanbaatar. This airport receives flights from South Korea, Japan, China, Germany and Russia.
Tourists can also go on their journey by the Moscow-Ulaanbaatar train. From the capital of Russia, he leaves 1 time in 7 days. In addition to the Moscow-Ulaanbaatar train, tourists can get to their destination by purchasing a ticket to Beijing. This train passes through the capital of Mongolia.
Travel time is a little over 4 days. There are trains to Ulaanbaatar and from other cities in Russia, for example, from Irkutsk.
Travellers can also get to the territory of Mongolia by bus, which runs regularly from Ulan-Ude. Travel time to Ulaanbaatar from this Russian citywill be approximately 12 hours.
Those who decide to travel to Mongolia by car will need an international driving license. No other permits are required to travel to the territory of this country.
There are about a dozen border crossings on the border with the Russian Federation. The main one is Kyakhta. This post works around the clock, passing only motorists. Crossing the border on foot is prohibited here.
The distance from Kyakhta to Ulaanbaatar is 350 km. However, tourists should keep in mind that there are practically no roads in Mongolia. So for those who value their car, before the trip, slowly weigh all the pros and cons
What documents other than a passport will be needed to visit the land of blue lakes and blue skies? Do I need a visa for Mongolia? This question often worries those Russians who decide to visit this country. For trips that do not exceed 30 days, such permission is not required. Visa-free regime between Mongolia and Russia was introduced in November 2014
No additional documents are needed when the traveler is planning his acquaintance with the country, wishes to visit friends or relatives, and also intends to make a business trip.
Do I need a visa to Mongolia if the term of stay of a Russian citizen has exceeded one month? A person who has stayed in the country for more than 90 days within 6 months must apply to the Consulate of this state, located on the territory of the Russian Federation. Here, when submitting the required package of documents,study, work and private visas for longer periods.
Crossing the border
The passage of the Mongolian border posts, judging by the reviews of experienced tourists, is a simple and troublesome business. It is enough to present a valid passport and, if there are products and goods that require a customs declaration, fill out this document.
Tugriks are currently in circulation in Mongolia. They are its national currency. Both coins and banknotes operate in the country. The minimum banknote in this case is 10 tugriks. The maximum denomination is 20,000 units.
The currency of Mongolia has its own graphic sign. They are a capital letter "T", which is crossed out by two lines located at an angle of 40 degrees.
In addition to the national currency, US dollars are widely used in Mongolia. Despite their unofficial popularity, payments in them are allowed by the state.
Russian rubles and euros are accepted in Mongolia. However, sellers are not so willing to do this, and even then only in some stores.
Those tourists who are planning their trip to Mongolia should keep in mind that there are exchange offices in the country to convert money. You can make such an operation in banks, as well as in large stores. But this only applies to cities. Having left them, you will not meet exchange offices on your way.
What speech can be heard in this country? The official language of Mongolia is Mongolian. On himthe majority of the country's population speaks.
However, in addition to Mongolian, languages such as Buryat, Oirat, Kamengan, Tuvan, Kazakh and Tsaatan-Soyot dialect have also become widespread here.
A traveler should keep in mind that Ulaanbaatar and the capital of Russia are located in different time zones. Time in Mongolia is five hours ahead of Moscow.
It is interesting that the inhabitants of the country call Ulaanbaatar "hot". It means "city" in translation. And if one of the Mongols says that he is heading for the city, then he means only the capital. The rest of these settlements, and there are 29 of them in the country, are not considered as such. They have the status of Mongolian cities only in fact. Let's get acquainted with the largest of them.
Almost half of the country's population lives in this city. The capital of Mongolia is its major tourist, cultural and economic center.
This is a city of amazing contrasts, on the territory of which among the high-rise modern buildings you can find the oldest Buddhist monasteries, and on the streets, mixed with the latest models of the automobile industry, young Mongols ride undersized horses. Sitting on wooden saddles and dressed in modern clothes, they hurry to have a traditional dinner with their parents in one of the yurts that surround Ulaanbaatar.
The capital of Mongolia provides tourists with entertainment for every taste. For guests of the country there are nightclubs.and numerous boutiques. Ulaanbaatar also attracts travelers with its sights.
This city in Mongolia is the third largest. He is known for his mining and processing plant, which was built in Soviet times. Thanks to this, Erdenet grew rapidly during that period.
And today everything here is reminiscent of Soviet aesthetics. In addition, almost 15% of the population of this city are our compatriots.
The distance between Erdenet and Ulaanbaatar is 330 km. At the same time, the city is a fairly large railway junction connecting China and Russia.
In Erdenet, you can visit a quarry, as well as a mining museum, which contains quite rare exhibits, admire Buddhist temples and purchase products from a carpet factory without a trade margin.
In the old days, this city was called Bayan Tuman. Its history began thanks to the caravan trade. Today it is the fourth largest in Mongolia.
From the capital of the country, Choibalsan is located at a distance of 670 km, which is best covered by plane.
This city is the oldest capital of Mongolia. The word "karakorum" means "black stones of the volcano". In former times it was the capital of the state headed by Genghis Khan. Many cities in the world could not compare with its luxury and splendor.
Today, only ruins can be seen here. Nevertheless, many tourists tend to visit this place. After all, this is whereobject included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. It is the cultural landscape of the Orkhon River, on the right bank of which stands Erdani Euu, the oldest Buddhist monastery.
This city is located in the western part of Mongolia and 1100 km from the capital of the country. Mountain peaks surround it on all sides. Ulgii attracts tourists with its location. It is equally easy to get there from Russia, Kazakhstan, and also from China. It is better to fly from Ulaanbaatar to Ulgii by plane. Here you can also transfer to Alma-Ata.
What to see in Mongolia?
Among the main attractions of the country are:
- Monument to Genghis Khan. This is a statue that is located in Tsongzhin-Boldog and is the largest in the world, depicting a horse rider. In addition, in Mongolia it is also the largest monument to Genghis Khan. Inside the pedestal, on which the 40-meter figure is installed, there is a rest room. At the top is an observation deck.
- Gandantegchenlin Buddhist Monastery. It is located in Ulaanbaatar and is currently operational. This monastery is the first religious center in the country. On its territory is one of the sights of Mongolia. This is a huge statue depicting the Golden God. It was installed in 1911
- Gobi Desert. This area consists of nothing but stones and clay. The Gobi desert is located in the north of Mongolia and is considered the largest in Asia. Its flora is representedsmall bushes of tough grass and small saxaul trees. There are also sands. This, for example, Khongor Eps - singing dunes. During the movement of grains of sand in the desert, sounds similar to gentle singing are heard. There is also a mountain range in the Gobi desert that can impress any traveler. It is called Bayanzag and is a majestic red rock. It was here that the first dinosaur egg was found in 1923, and today there is a cemetery for these animals.
- Amarbayasgalant Monastery. This landmark of Mongolia is the largest religious complex. All the buildings located in it are distinguished by the unity of style, in which Chinese traditions prevail. Today this monastery is active and about a hundred monks live in it. This object attracts tourists because of its unique combination of interesting architecture with natural landscape. All of its buildings are built in a picturesque valley and are located against the backdrop of hills covered with deciduous forests.
- Zaisan Memorial. This landmark of Mongolia is a military glory complex. It is located not far from Ulaanbaatar on the Zaisan Tolgoi hill. A memorial was erected in honor of the battle at Khalkin Gol, in which the Soviet-Mongolian army won. The complex was completed with an original architectural solution. The memorial is a huge concrete ring, decorated with mosaics and bas-reliefs.
- The Palace of Bogdykhan. This complex is one of the most spectacular and striking sights of the country. It includes the buildings of the Summer and Winter Palaces of the lastemperor of the state, which were built at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Both the external and internal decoration of these buildings has been preserved in excellent condition. This gives tourists the opportunity to get acquainted with the life of the Mongolian rulers. Interestingly, the summer palace includes several buildings built in traditional Chinese style.
- Sukhe Bator Square. It is located in the capital of Mongolia and is its main public space. To date, the main square of Ulaanbaatar has been renamed and bears the name of Genghis Khan. There are several monuments on it, and business centers rise around it, there is a theater and a museum. It is on this square that all holidays and mass events are held.
- Gorkhi-Terelj. This is a national park of Mongolia, the distance to which from Ulaanbaatar is only 80 km. Its landscape is represented by low mountains, the slopes of which are covered with forest or steppe vegetation. In the south of the park area there is a well-developed infrastructure of the tourism sector. There is a spa resort, recreation centers and hotels here. Those travelers who decide to stay at this place are invited to explore the park with dinosaur sculptures and a Buddhist temple.
- Khustein-Nuruu. This national natural park can only be explored by jeep, horseback or hiking tour. In addition to picturesque landscapes, tourists will see ancient monuments here. Those travelers who love nature can take part in its study. This park is known for the fact that it is working to restore the almost lost population of horses. Przewalski.
- Hubsugul. This lake is called the younger brother of Baikal. It is located at a distance of two hundred kilometers from it. The lake is freshwater, and also very deep. Its age is over 2 million years. Khubsugul is located between taiga and steppe landscapes. It is surrounded by a protected area. There are tourist camps on the shores of the lake, and a ferry runs along its water surface. This place is considered a popular eco-tourism site.
What to bring from Mongolia? In this country, tourists love to buy amazingly warm and soft cashmere items. It is obtained by combing the undercoat of mountain goats and making fabric or yarn from it. But it is worth bearing in mind that the cost of such things is too high. That is why seasoned tourists recommend buying them in shops open at factories.
Great gifts brought from Mongolia will also be:
- leather products;
- national costumes;
- Yanmal woolen socks;
- goods brought from neighboring China.
You can find all of these in souvenir shops or at Naran Tuul, the largest market in Mongolia.
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