Table of contents:
- Sailing ships in the modern world
- Classification by sail type
- Classification by number of masts
- Masts in the modern world
- Types of masts
- What types of water vehicles are there?
- Variety of ships
- Buy in store
2023 Author: Harold Hamphrey | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 19:35
The very first sailing ships (to be described in this article) appeared more than three thousand years ago in Egypt and were an ordinary raft with a straight mast and steering oar. A little later, the Phoenicians began to make more advanced models. For their construction, they used the wood of the Lebanese cedar and oak. There were shipyards in the ports of Phenicia, which produced merchant single-masted boats and better-equipped warships. Approximately in the 5th century. BC e. the ancient Greeks and Romans already had a navy. However, large sailing ships appeared in Europe during the period of great geographical discoveries. It was then that the most powerful European powers, in search of new colonies, began to equip navy fleets for traveling not only across the ocean, but also around the world. Thus began a stubborn struggle for dominance at sea, which contributed to the active development of the shipbuilding industry.
Sailing ships in the modern world
In our time, when the navy is made up of powerful ships equipped with the first word of technology, sailing models began to be used mainly for entertainment. Most of the modernsailboats make up yachts. In Europe and America, where there are sports yacht clubs, sports regattas are held annually. Most often, sailing yachts take part in such events.
A regatta is a water competition between sailing or rowing boats.
Traditionally, such competitions are held in America and England. Some regattas are major international competitions, such as. America's Cup.
Classification of sailing ships is determined depending on equipment and technical characteristics. Below are the main types of varieties of sailboats.
Classification by sail type
• Vessels with square sails.
• Vessels with slanting sails.
Sail was used by the ancient Egyptians and Phoenicians. It is a canvas in the form of a trapezoid, attached to a horizontal rail. Ships with square sails only work well with a fair wind, so they were quickly changed to ships with slanting sails.
The oblique sail is located on the back side of the mast, to which it is attached with its leading edge. Ships with slanting sails sail well both under a fair wind and under a sharp course to the wind. Oblique sails, in turn, are divided into:
• Hafel sails.
• Jib and staysail.
Classification by number of masts
• Single-masted sailing yachts.
• Two-masted yachts.
• Multi-masted yachts.
The mast is part of the sailing rig. She representsvertical ship structure, which is usually supported with special guy wires. Masts were made mainly from softwood.
Masts in the modern world
On large modern ships that do not have sailing equipment, masts have lost their main function and are used for other purposes:
• To carry the national attributes of their country (flag and coat of arms).
• To carry identification marks about the current state of the ship (quarantine on board, fire on board, drill, etc.).
• To install various lighting signs.
• To install some buzzers.
• In order to pay tribute to the state in whose waters the ship is currently located. The national flag of this country is set on the mast.
• If there is a dead person on board, the state flag is flown at half mast as a sign of mourning and tribute to his memory.
Types of masts
• Foremast. This is the very first mast, counting from the bow of the ship.
• Mainmast. It is the second structure of this type from the bow of the ship. On two-three-masted ships, it is also the highest.
• Mizzen mast. The stern mast, which on any vessel is the last from the bow.
What types of water vehicles are there?
Classification of sailboats by type of hull:
Classification of sailing ships by number of hulls:
• Single case
• Double-hull (sailing catamarans)
• Trihull (sailing trimarans).
And finally, the classification of sailing ships depending on the use of the keel:
• Keel yachts (these boats use a heavy keel to significantly reduce ship drift and lower the center of gravity).
• Dinghy boats (a special daggerboard is installed on such yachts, if necessary, it can be raised and the draft of the vessel can be reduced).
• Compromise yachts (they use intermediate design solutions between dinghies and keel structures).
Variety of ships
The names of sailing ships should be listed.
Aak is a small, single-masted, flat-bottomed vessel designed to carry small loads.
Bark is a large ship with three to five masts. The vessel is mainly equipped with straight sails, only one oblique is fixed on the aft mast.
Barkentina is a sea three-five-masted sailboat. Most masts are equipped with slanting sails. Only the bow structure has a straight sail.
Brig is a two-masted ship with direct sailing equipment on the mainmast and foremast and a slanting gaff sail on the mainsail.
Brigantine is a light two-masted vessel with oblique sails on the mainmast and straight sails on the foremast, this type of sailing rig is called mixed.
Galeon is a large multi-deck marine vessel with a powerfulartillery weapons. Galleons were intended for long-distance sea voyages and battles. Such sailing ships were quite fast and maneuverable and made up the bulk of the Spanish and English fleets.
The junk was a wooden two to four masted vessel used mainly in Southeast Asia and intended for river or coastal marine cargo transportation.
Iol is a two-masted vessel with slanting sails and the position of the aft mast behind the rudder axis.
Caravel is a three-to-four-masted sea vessel with mixed sailing equipment, designed for sea voyages and significant cargo transportation.
Galley - this is the name of almost all sailing and rowing ships, they were used in antiquity. In addition to sailing weapons, they had one or two rows of rows.
Karakka is a large three-masted ship used for commercial and military purposes. The ship could have up to three decks and had an impressive cannon armament.
Kech is a small two-masted ship. Differs in the location of the aft mast ahead of the rudder axis.
A frigate is a military three-masted ship with full sailing armament. The classic frigate was created in France in the mid-eighteenth century and was a light, maneuverable vessel with good armament.
Flute is a good marine sailing vessel designed for military transport purposes. Due to the fact that the length of this vessel was several times its width, the flute could go quite steeply into the wind,and this gave him a significant advantage over other, less maneuverable ships.
A sloop is a military three-masted ship sailing under direct sails. Used as a patrol and vehicle.
Schooner - a light sailing vessel that had at least two masts with slanting sails. Schooners are very easy to manage. They were mainly used for various trade transportations.
Initially, sailing yachts were fast and light vessels used to transport dignitaries. Subsequently, a yacht began to be called any sailing-motor, motor or simply sailing vessel intended for tourist or sports purposes.
The first yachts appeared in the eighteenth century. They were quite fast and comfortable, which is why rich people preferred this type of sea transport. Modern sailing yachts have an outboard motor that makes it easy to maneuver in port and sail at low speed even during complete calm. They are divided into cruising (there is a cabin on board), pleasure and racing.
Buy in store
Today, many historical sailing ships no longer exist and have remained only on the pages of adventure novels and in pictures in magazines and books. But don't get too upset. In the store you can buy models of sailing ships designed for themed decor. There are also special kits and manuals for assembling sailing ships with your own hands. It should be noted that collectingship models are a very entertaining hobby that is gaining momentum in Russia.
The most famous and legendary sailing ships, photos and models of which are popular:
The Endeavor Barque is James Cook's famous ship, on which he sailed to the then unexplored shores of Australia and New Zealand.
Neva and Nadezhda are two sloops that circumnavigated the world for the first time in Russian history.
Prince is an English frigate that sank in 1854 in the Black Sea after a catastrophic storm. He gained popularity thanks to rumors about the sunken treasures he was transporting.
"Mary Rose" - the flagship military of the English King Henry the Eighth, which tragically sank in 1545.
The Great Republic is the largest clipper ship of the nineteenth century, which was built by the famous shipbuilder Donald McKay.
Ariel is a British clipper ship that became famous for winning the famous "tea race" from China to London in 1866.
"Adventure" is the ship of one of the most famous pirates - Captain William Kidd.
The era of sailing ships was truly an exciting time of adventure and romance. Sailing ships took part in numerous naval battles, sailed to uncharted shores and transported priceless treasures, with which a great many legends are associated. A huge number of literary works are devoted to ships of this type. Based on historical events and mystical stories with the participation of sailing models, manyfamous adventure films.
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