Table of contents:
- New achievements in science and technology
- Need for further development
- Features of air transport
- What aircraft are used in modern aviation?
- Differences in application
- Difference in technical and operational parameters
- Flight personnel
Since ancient times, all the peoples inhabiting our planet have played an important role in transport. As for the modern stage, the importance of means of transportation has grown disproportionately. Today, the existence of any country is impossible to imagine without powerful transport.
New achievements in science and technology
The twentieth century was marked by gigantic transformations that took place in all spheres of human activity. Air transport is no exception. Its development was facilitated by the growth of the world's population, an increase in the amount of consumed material resources, urbanization, social, political and many other factors.
The scientific and technological revolution that has taken place has made it possible to change air transport not only quantitatively, but also qualitatively. It is worth saying that at all times, human vehicles have been a special dynamic system. It was the transport system that practically served as the first consumer of various discoveries and achievements in science.areas. In many cases, it was she who acted as the direct customer of advanced developments.
It is difficult to name any area of research that would not relate to the improvement of vehicles. For their progress, the results of physical and thermodynamic developments are used. Physicists and mathematicians take a considerable part in the development of transport. Mechanics and chemists, astronomers and geologists, biologists and many other scientists are involved in solving this problem. The development of transport, including air transport, is facilitated by the results of applied research carried out in the field of mechanical engineering and metallurgy, structural mechanics and automation, astronautics and electronics.
Need for further development
In modern conditions, air transport is one of the most dynamically developing means of transportation. It plays an important role in the main directions of development of the national economy and civil aviation. The development of air transport for the country is simply necessary.
The main goal pursued in this case is to increase the volume of transportation of goods and passengers over long distances and to hard-to-reach areas. At the same time, the requirements for air transport are increasing. It should become more economical and regular, comfortable and safe. To achieve these goals, new in-depth studies of various scientific branches will be required, as well as more serious experimental designdevelopment.
Features of air transport
Aviation is the youngest and fastest direction, designed to carry out communication links between different regions. At the same time, it is the most expensive industry.
Russian air transport is an important part of the country's national economy. With its help, medicines and mail, industrial and food products are delivered to the most inaccessible corners.
It is worth saying that aviation is the most advanced mode of transport. She does not need roads and is not afraid of various obstacles. It was thanks to aviation that humanity got the opportunity to go into space.
Air transport has a number of undeniable advantages. First of all, it is high speed. At the same time, important maneuverability is achieved in the organization of passenger transportation. In addition, modern airlines provide non-stop flights over considerable distances.
What aircraft are used in modern aviation?
The types of air transport that are used in the national economy of the country are not so diverse. In modern aviation, aircraft are used, which are represented by various models of aircraft and helicopters. All of them are widely used for various tasks.
Helicopters do a lot of work in the national economy. These are aircraft that rise into the airspace whenthe help of rotating blades located on a vertical shaft. Helicopters use:
- during construction and installation works;
- in the sanitary service;
- in agriculture;
- during the construction of pipelines;
- to fight emerging forest fires;
- to transport mail;
- to assist in geological exploration;
- as a means of monitoring traffic on the roads; - to communicate with weather stations located in high mountain areas.
Transportation of goods by air, represented by a fleet of helicopters, is carried out over short distances.
The principle of aircraft flight lies in the interaction of the traction force of the engine and the lifting force of the wing.
Differences in application
In modern aviation, the following types of air transport are distinguished:
- for passenger transportation;
- for movement of goods;
- cargo-passenger (combined):
- training;- special purpose (sanitary, agricultural, fire, etc.).
This gradation is applied depending on the industry of application, as well as on the purpose of the aircraft.
Difference in technical and operational parameters
For passenger air transport, such a characteristic as capacity is used. For cargo aircraft, their carrying capacity is important. For combined air transport, the technical and operational parameter is the rangeflight without landing, as well as speed. According to the latter indicator, certain types of aircraft are also distinguished. The speed of the aircraft may be less than the speed of sound. There are also supersonic aircraft.
Transportation of passengers and cargo by air is in Russia under the direct control of the state. There are linear departments and departments in the country that oversee the work of this industry. At the same time, each airline pays a tax on the service of dispatchers.
The main executive body that exercises control over air transport is the Federal Agency for Air Transportation. Its main tasks:
- provision of services that ensure the uninterrupted operation of air transport;
- issuance of licenses for admission to flights on international and domestic routes;
- certification of companies providing aircraft flights; - supervising the work of educational institutions of the aviation industry.
Managing air traffic is not easy. The flight crew includes navigators and pilots, as well as cadets of flight schools who are fit for this work according to the conclusion of the medical commission and can perform their functional duties.
Each crew member during the flight must unquestioningly comply with all instructions given by the flight control authority. Deviating from the route is possible only in case of a threat to the safety and life of people who are on board the aircraft.
Navigators and pilots must be issued permits:
- to training flights that are carried out during the day or night;
- to flights on a new modification of the aircraft;- to special flights.
In this case, all tolerances must be entered in the flight book. Regardless of the position held, each of the crew members is required to undergo an annual check on various types of flight training. At the same time, its results must also be entered in the flight book.
There are certain norms for the rest and flight time of the aircraft crew. So, you can stay in the air for no more than twelve hours a day. Such a norm is established for the flight crew of air airliners. Helicopter crews must have a daily flight time of no more than eight hours.
In air transport, all measures must be taken to ensure that the flight does not pose a danger to passengers. In this regard, the Federal Air Transport Agency implemented a ban on carrying liquids on board the aircraft. This restriction applies to all airports in the country.
The air transport department - Rosaviatsia - notes that the threat of terrorist attacks on air transport has not been eliminated. In connection with this situation, a directive was sent to all organizations related to civil aviation, as well as to all airports, indicating the need to implement all measures to ensure flight safety. According to this document, the passenger does not have the right to carry inhand luggage any liquid. This ban also applies to personal hygiene products. They must be checked in as baggage, which is checked with the use of technical devices for screening. Only then can the liquid be placed on board the aircraft.
In the event that a passenger needs to carry medicines during the flight, they can be carried in hand luggage only after they have been inspected by airport security.
Passengers should understand such measures, because they are taken to ensure the safety of the flight.