Table of contents:
- Founding History
- Territorial boundaries
- Natural we alth
- Aquatic flora
- Animal world
- Birds of Prey
Tourist routes of Voronezh annually attract thousands of travelers. And this is no accident. The reserves of the Voronezh region are places where nature has been preserved almost in a virgin state. These picturesque corners are carefully protected not only by the Russian government, but also by some international organizations. One of these sites is "Divnogorye".
This reserve has a unique natural landscape. It is located at the confluence of the Don and Quiet Pine rivers. This museum-reserve annually attracts lovers of nature, clean, fresh air. Various architectural monuments are collected in this unique place. So, here is the Holy Assumption monastery complex, in which in different years there was a sanatorium, then a rest house, although initially it was a monastery. The second popular place is the Voronezh State Reserve. What is rich in this untouched land and what inhabitants inhabit it, we will find outfurther from the article.
Voronezh Biosphere Reserve is located 40 km from the city center. It was created in order to preserve the number of river beavers. Thanks to timely care, this species of animals not only did not disappear, but also significantly increased its population. By the way, this natural complex is the only beaver nursery in the world. At the end of the 20th century, the reserve received the status of a UNESCO biosphere reserve. And at the beginning of the next century, the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation instructed him to protect two reserves. They were "Stone Steppe" and "Voronezh".
The Voronezh Biosphere Reserve outlines the zone of the ancient Usmansky pine forest from three sides. The natural complex is located on a flat area, on the left bank of the river. From the west, the boundary of the reserve for 5 km runs parallel to the channel of the water stream. On the south side, it runs along the railway line. By the way, just a few kilometers from the Grafskaya station, which is located on this section of the road, is the Central Estate of the Reserve. It contains an excursion and administrative complex, an experimental beaver nursery and research laboratories. In addition, here you can visit the famous Museum of Nature.
The Voronezh and Usmanka rivers pass through the territory of this natural complex. The first, rather deep, water stream is located near the village of Ramon. The second riveris a tributary of the Voronezh and consists of a number of low-flowing lakes - reaches. These objects are interconnected by narrow streams with swampy backwaters and banks. Usmanka's path mainly runs through forests. In dry years, river channels become very shallow.
Natural we alth
Practically the entire territory on which the Voronezhsky Reserve is located is covered by Usmansky Bor, whose forests have an island character. In addition, representatives of the steppe flora and plants of mainly northern forests are found here. The name "boron" is not entirely applicable to this natural massif. Although pine forests are predominantly found here, the mixed relief, soil heterogeneity, and different depths of groundwater have led to the emergence of a significant diversity in vegetation. The man also had a great influence. As a result, today the pine forest occupies no more than one third of the area of the reserve. What is characteristic, in the western part of the natural complex, pines have dimensions unusual for this species. That is, the trees do not have a "ship" scope, and their trunks are strongly curved. Such natural manifestations are associated with the poor moisture supply of these places and, accordingly, poor nutrition.
On the territory where the Voronezh Biosphere Reserve is located, depending on soil moisture, mountain ash, broom and steppe cherry can grow next to oak. The grass cover consists mainly of upland plants. This is heath sedge and palmate,hairy hawk, gray-haired veronica and so on. Almost the entire soil of the natural complex is covered with lichen and moss. 29% of the territory of the natural complex is occupied by broad-leaved forests. They are mainly located on the slopes of the Voronezh-Usmanka watershed. Also, these natural massifs can be found in the eastern part, along the border with the steppe. Oak forests of sedge, bird cherry and sedge-snotweed are common in this forest area. In the first tier of the deciduous massif, mainly centenarians (oaks up to 160 years old) predominate. Ash is also found among them. In the second, in addition to these species, elm and linden grow. And in the undergrowth there are mainly euonymus, hazel and bird cherry. The soil of the deciduous forests of the reserve is covered with hairy sedge, goutweed, lungwort and other types of grasses. In addition to pine and oak forests, birch and aspen forests are common in the natural complex of Voronezh. Also, almost 2.5% of the territory is swampy.
In the summer, the surface of the reservoirs of the reserve is covered with flowering water lilies, water-colors and egg-pods. Near the streams and tributaries of the Ivnitsa River in shady places you can find a very spectacular plant - the common ostrich fern. Also, on the territory occupied by the Voronezh Reserve, the common false reed grows. According to many botanists, this plant is a relic of the post-glacial period. This miracle of nature can be found only in one place of the reserve - near Lake Chistoe.
FaunaThe reserve is mostly made up of forest species. Of the number of ungulates, wild boars are predominantly distinguished, inhabiting deciduous forests. The number of roe deer is also quite high. Their habitat is places densely overgrown with trees or shrubs. There are few moose here, representatives of the taiga zone, and red deer. The highest point of growth in their number came in 1970. Then their number reached 1200 individuals. But the wolves that appeared in the forest practically exterminated the deer population. Currently, only a few dozen remain. The raccoon dog and the fox are common in the lands.
The river beaver, thanks to which the Voronezhsky Reserve began its existence, conveniently settled down on various reservoirs. He developed a vigorous activity there, building dams and digging deep holes. On the heights of deciduous forests there are badger "towns". In solid burrows connected by a system of complex passages, these animals live for more than a dozen years. Ermine, weasel and marten are common for the reserve. The American mink stalks its prey near ponds. From here she supplanted her European "relative" already in the thirties of the 20th century. The island forest-steppe pine forests are inhabited by mouse-like rodents. The habitat of the secretive forest dormouse is oak forests. There are more of them here than protein. Jerboas and spotted ground squirrel live in the open steppes, but their numbers have fallen significantly over the years. The hollows of old trees serve as homes for various species (theirthere are 12) bats. Brown earflaps, bats (forest and dwarf) are popular. Some of these mammal types vary in frequency and limited distribution.
137 species of birds inhabit the Voronezh Reserve. The owners of oak forests and mixed forests are passeriformes, which make up almost half of the total number of all types of birds. Bluethroats with multicolored "apron" and yellow-headed wagtails settle in damp meadows overgrown with shrubs, in floodplains of rivers. The common kingfisher chooses coastal cliffs near the water as a dwelling. This small but agile fish diver can be distinguished from other birds by its rufous chest and blue-green back. Shrike Shrike prefers clearings with bushes. Here you can also find greenfinch with greenish plumage and hawk warbler. The bird received such an original name for its resemblance to a hawk. With yellow eyes and a light chest with dark spots, she is very similar to this predator. Common cranes choose thickets of black alder in the lower reaches of the rivers for their shelter. The number of couples living there varies from 6 to 15. The Ivnitsa River sheltered a large colony of these birds (150 pairs) near it. A large bittern settles in swampy areas, while a small bittern prefers only steppe reservoirs. The white stork - one of the graceful and beautiful birds - has also been building nests here lately. The small grebe, a very rare species of birds, can be seen in a forest reservoir, and in the steppe - a large or black-necked one. Various types of waderschose the banks of rivers and streams as their place of residence.
Birds of Prey
Their fauna is estimated at fifteen species. Along with the usual representatives of the middle zone, rare individuals live here. We are talking about the short-toed eagle, pygmy eagle, honey buzzard, greater spotted eagle, imperial eagle, golden eagle, white-tailed eagle. Birds such as the owl, long-eared and short-eared owl are common. The latter creates settlements of a semi-colonial type in the meadows. In autumn and spring, 39 species of birds migrate to the Voronezh Reserve, a photo of which can be seen in the article. Some stop there in packs numbering several hundred individuals. In springtime, these are rooks, and in autumn days - geese (white-fronted and bean goose).
Marsh turtles live in deep waters. There are not many of them, because there are few places suitable for laying eggs. It used to be thought that fish was the main food of this reptile species. Therefore, the turtle was considered harmful to the water industry. But in fact, it feeds on worms, insects and their larvae, tadpoles, newts, small fish, caterpillars, various types of locusts. In the ecological system, the turtle takes the place of a kind of orderly and selector, removing sick or dead insects.
It is not uncommon to meet an ordinary newt. There are five types of frogs. The most common of them is the common spadefoot. It is named so for a reason. Living near water bodies, this light gray toad with brown spots emits an odor through the glands,similar to the aroma of garlic. With the help of its hind legs, it deftly burrows into the soil in an almost vertical position. Sensing danger, she can meet it face to face. Puffing up, making warning sounds, the toad will headbutt the enemy.
The Voronezh River can be proud of the diversity of their species. It is rich in both large representatives of the animal world of reservoirs (pike, burbot, catfish), as well as medium and small ones. One of them is the bull-calf. It owes such a funny name to its appearance. The nostrils extended into tubes, similar to the ears of a spaniel, hang over the upper lip. The appearance and peculiar manner of moving under water, as if sniffing everything, are the main reasons why the fish got a funny name.